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An increasingly large body of data exists which demonstrates that oscillations of frequency 12-80 Hz are a consequence of, or are inextricably linked to, the behaviour of inhibitory interneurons in the central nervous system. This frequency range covers the EEG bands beta 1 (12-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz). The pharmacological profile of(More)
In model networks of E-cells and I-cells (excitatory and inhibitory neurons, respectively), synchronous rhythmic spiking often comes about from the interplay between the two cell groups: the E-cells synchronize the I-cells and vice versa. Under ideal conditions-homogeneity in relevant network parameters and all-to-all connectivity, for instance-this(More)
Synchronization properties of locally coupled neural oscillators were investigated analytically and by computer simulation. When coupled in a manner that mimics excitatory chemical synapses, oscillators having more than one time scale (relaxation oscillators) are shown to approach synchrony using mechanisms very different from that of oscillators with a(More)
Synchronous rhythmic spiking in neuronal networks can be brought about by the interaction between E-cells and Icells (excitatory and inhibitory cells). The I-cells gate and synchronize the E-cells, and the E-cells drive and synchronize the I-cells. We refer to rhythms generated in this way as PING (pyramidal-interneuronal gamma) rhythms. The PING mechanism(More)
Experimental and modeling efforts suggest that rhythms in the CA1 region of the hippocampus that are in the beta range (12-29 Hz) have a different dynamical structure than that of gamma (30-70 Hz). We use a simplified model to show that the different rhythms employ different dynamical mechanisms to synchronize, based on different ionic currents. The beta(More)
Neuronal oscillations of different frequencies can interact in several ways. There has been particular interest in the modulation of the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations by the phase of low-frequency oscillations, since recent evidence suggests a functional role for this type of cross-frequency coupling (CFC). Phase-amplitude coupling has been(More)
Oscillatory rhythms in different frequency ranges mark different behavioral states and are thought to provide distinct temporal windows that coherently bind cooperating neuronal assemblies. However, the rhythms in different bands can also interact with each other, suggesting the possibility of higher-order representations of brain states by such rhythmic(More)
Understanding the mechanistic bases of neuronal synchronization is a current challenge in quantitative neuroscience. We studied this problem in two putative cellular pacemakers of the mammalian hippocampal theta rhythm: glutamatergic stellate cells (SCs) of the medial entorhinal cortex and GABAergic oriens-lacunosum-molecular (O-LM) interneurons of(More)
Unconsciousness is a fundamental component of general anesthesia (GA), but anesthesiologists have no reliable ways to be certain that a patient is unconscious. To develop EEG signatures that track loss and recovery of consciousness under GA, we recorded high-density EEGs in humans during gradual induction of and emergence from unconsciousness with propofol.(More)
We describe a simple computational model, based on generic features of cortical local circuits, that links cholinergic neuromodulation, gamma rhythmicity, and attentional selection. We propose that cholinergic modulation, by reducing adaptation currents in principal cells, induces a transition from asynchronous spontaneous activity to a "background" gamma(More)