Nancy I. Williams

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Ghrelin is directly involved with short-term regulation of energy balance. Although circulating levels of ghrelin are elevated in anorexia nervosa and reduced in obesity, the role of ghrelin in regulating long-term energy balance in healthy women has not been investigated. We examined the effects of a 3-month energy deficit-imposing diet and exercise(More)
The role of energy imbalance versus psychosocial stress in the pathogenesis of female reproductive dysfunction characterized by anovulation and amenorrhea remains controversial. In women, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea can develop in the absence of significant weight loss, excessive exercise, or profound psychosocial disruption. We posited, therefore,(More)
Female athletes incur anterior cruciate ligament ruptures at a rate at least twice that of male athletes. Hypothesized factors for the increased injury risk in females include biomechanical, neuromuscular, and hormonal differences between genders. A wealth of literature exists examining these potential predispositions individually, but the interactions(More)
Resistance exercise has positive effects on bone mass, but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine if a single bout of moderate intensity resistance exercise alters biochemical markers of bone cell activity. Indices of bone turnover were measured in nine healthy, untrained men (21.9 +/- 1.2 yrs(More)
We studied two groups of adult macaque monkeys to determine the time course of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the first group, six adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received a single injection of the thymidine analog BrdU (75 mg/kg), which is incorporated into replicating DNA and serves as a marker for new cell birth. Brain(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone, alone and in combination, on endometrial histology and ovarian steroid production. STUDY DESIGN Randomized open-label study of metformin and rosiglitazone in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) performed at a single academic health center. The study consisted of a 6-week baseline(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether exercise training would increase lymphocyte activation in patients with breast cancer following chemotherapy. Activation was determined by the presence of CD4(+)CD69(+) T-helper lymphocytes, mitogen-induced proliferation, and levels of cytokines produced by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and in the patients' plasma. METHODS(More)
This study examined whether regular exercise training, at a level that would be recommended for middle-aged people interested in improving fitness could lead to improved cognitive performance and increased blood flow to the brain in another primate species. Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were trained to run on treadmills for 1 h a day, 5 days a week, for a(More)
Cross-sectional and short-term prospective studies in humans support the concept that low energy availability, and not other factors associated with exercise, causes the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction. To rigorously test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study, examining the role of low energy availability on both the(More)
Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes(More)