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A dried powder from basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, has been used in East Asia in therapies for several different diseases, including cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the biological actions of Ganoderma are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and nuclear(More)
Controlled pH, liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover has been optimized for enzyme digestibility with respect to processing temperature and time. This processing technology does not require the addition of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, lime, or ammonia that add cost to the process because these chemicals must be neutralized or recovered in(More)
Xylose is one of the major fermentable sugars present in cellulosic biomass, second only to glucose. However, Saccharomyces spp., the best sugar-fermenting microorganisms, are not able to metabolize xylose. We developed recombinant plasmids that can transform Saccharomyces spp. into xylose-fermenting yeasts. These plasmids, designated pLNH31, -32, -33, and(More)
The pretreatment of cellulose in corn fiber by liquid hot water at 160 degrees C and a pH above 4.0 dissolved 50% of the fiber in 20 min. The pretreatment also enabled the subsequent complete enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining polysaccharides to monosaccharides. The carbohydrates dissolved by the pretreatment were 80% soluble oligosaccharides and 20%(More)
The inhibitory effects of furfural and acetic acid on the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol in YEPDX medium by a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (LNH-ST 424A) were investigated. Initial furfural concentrations below 5 g/L caused negligible inhibition to glucose and xylose consumption rates in batch fermentations with high inoculum(More)
Fermentation kinetics of ethanol production from glucose, xylose, and their mixtures using a recombinant Saccharomyces 1400(pLNH33) are reported. Single-substrate kinetics indicate that the specific growth rate of the yeast and the specific ethanol productivity on glucose as the substrate was greater than on xylose as a substrate. Ethanol yields from(More)
Recent studies have proven ethanol to be the ideal liquid fuel for transportation, and renewable lignocellulosic materials to be the attractive feedstocks for ethanol fuel production by fermentation. The major fermentable sugars from hydrolysis of most cellulosic biomass are D-glucose and D-xylose. The naturally occurring Saccharomyces yeasts that are used(More)
Clinical studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression, where diabetes may increase risk for depressive symptoms and depression may increase risk for diabetes. Preclinical models examining the effects of diabetes on brain and behavior can provide insights to the pathophysiology underlying this relationship. The current study(More)
Robust microorganisms are necessary for economical bioethanol production. However, such organisms must be able to effectively ferment both hexose and pentose sugars present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol. Wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae can rapidly ferment hexose, but cannot ferment pentose sugars. Considerable efforts were made to genetically(More)
A current challenge of the cellulosic ethanol industry is the effect of inhibitors present in biomass hydrolysates. Acetic acid is an example of one such inhibitor that is released during the pretreatment of hemicellulose. This study examined the effect of acetic acid on the cofermentation of glucose and xylose under controlled pH conditions by(More)