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This study tests the hypothesis that if the fast twitch muscles in a synergistic group were more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion injury, then the slow twitch muscle would compensate functionally during recovery. Rat hindlimb fast twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles and slow twitch soleus muscle were studied. In the experimental (E) group of rats,(More)
The purpose of this study was to visualize and document the architecture of the human soleus muscle throughout its entire volume. The architecture was visualized by creating a three-dimensional (3D) manipulatable computer model of an entire cadaveric soleus, in situ, using B-spline solid to display muscle fiber bundles that had been serially dissected,(More)
The purpose of this study was to establish if there are gender differences in muscle architecture in relaxed human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of normal, live subjects. Ultrasonography was used to measure fiber bundle length, muscle thickness, and angles of pennation in a total of ten predetermined sites in the medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius(More)
Computational musculoskeletal (MSK) models - 3D graphics-based models that accurately simulate the anatomical architecture and/or the biomechanical behaviour of organ systems consisting of skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and bones - are valued biomedical tools, with applications ranging from pathological diagnosis to surgical planning.(More)
This study was conducted to quantify and compare the extent of fibre degenerative and regenerative processes in different muscles of the rat hindlimb following single or repeated daily bouts of treadmill exercise. Wistar rats were used as non-exercised controls, or subjected to one, five, or ten (n = 8 per group), 30-minute daily bouts (-16 degrees,(More)
Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and(More)
This study compared different approaches to measuring nerve axon and fibre diameters and areas from transverse sections. A mock photomicrograph and mock tissue section, each with 100 identical, circular 'fibres' was constructed. Three measurement protocols were investigated: (A) circular approximation from minimum diameter; (B) circular approximation from(More)
To date, the architecture of supraspinatus (SP) and its relation to joint position has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the dynamic architecture of the distinct regions of SP using ultrasound (US). Seventeen subjects (8 M/9 F), mean age 36.4 +/- 12.7 years, without tendon pathology were recruited. The SP was scanned in(More)
Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) is used to compare force-producing capabilities of muscles. A limitation of PCSA is that it cannot be measured directly from a specimen, as there is usually no area within the muscle traversed by all fibres. Traditionally, a formula requiring averaged architectural parameters has been used. The purpose of this paper(More)
A historical analysis of fourteen published illustrations of the soleus muscle from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reveals obvious inconsistencies in the representational accuracy of the architecture of the muscle. To ensure the most accurate illustrations possible, biomedical communicators should conduct direct laboratory observations. A review of(More)