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Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans(More)
DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter(More)
BACKGROUND The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus--FeLV, feline coronavirus--FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus--FIV) that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS(More)
A key component of the ongoing ENCODE project involves rigorous comparative sequence analyses for the initially targeted 1% of the human genome. Here, we present orthologous sequence generation, alignment, and evolutionary constraint analyses of 23 mammalian species for all ENCODE targets. Alignments were generated using four different methods; comparisons(More)
Ciliary dysfunction leads to a broad range of overlapping phenotypes, collectively termed ciliopathies. This grouping is underscored by genetic overlap, where causal genes can also contribute modifier alleles to clinically distinct disorders. Here we show that mutations in TTC21B, which encodes the retrograde intraflagellar transport protein IFT139, cause(More)
Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes in 13 primary serous(More)
We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A;(More)
ATAD5, the human ortholog of yeast Elg1, plays a role in PCNA deubiquitination. Since PCNA modification is important to regulate DNA damage bypass, ATAD5 may be important for suppression of genomic instability in mammals in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we generated heterozygous (Atad5(+/m)) mice that were haploinsuffficient for Atad5. Atad5(+/m) mice(More)
MOTIVATION Extensive DNA sequencing of tumor and matched normal samples using exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies has enabled the discovery of recurrent genetic alterations in cancer cells, but variability in stromal contamination and subclonal heterogeneity still present a severe challenge to available detection algorithms. RESULTS Here, we(More)
Much emphasis has been placed on the identification, functional characterization, and therapeutic potential of somatic variants in tumor genomes. However, the majority of somatic variants lie outside coding regions and their role in cancer progression remains to be determined. In order to establish a system to test the functional importance of non-coding(More)