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After two outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis associated with a previously unrecognized pathogen, Escherichia coli O157:H7, a surveillance system was established to identify and study sporadic cases of this distinct clinical illness in the United States. Between August 1982 and April 1984, we identified 28 persons from 11 states who met our case definition and(More)
To determine risk factors for cholera in an epidemic-disease area in South America, a case-control investigation was performed in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in July 1991. Residents > 5 years old who were hospitalized for treatment of acute, watery diarrhoea and two matched controls for each were interviewed regarding sources of water and food, and eating,(More)
CONTEXT Multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi infections have been reported worldwide, but data on the incidence of resistant strains in the United States are lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi infections and to identify risk factors for infection. DESIGN Cross-sectional laboratory-based(More)
Potential virulence attributes, serotypes, and ribotypes were determined for 178 pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical, environmental, and food sources on the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts of the United States and from clinical sources in Asia. The food and environmental isolates were generally from oysters, and they were defined as(More)
CONTEXT In May and June 1998, reported Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections increased sharply in Texas. OBJECTIVE To determine factors that contributed to the increase in V parahaemolyticus infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey of persons reporting gastroenteritis after eating seafood in Texas; survey of environmental(More)
Vibrio, a diverse genus of aquatic bacteria, currently includes 72 species, 12 of which occur in human clinical samples. Of these 12, three species--Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus-account for the majority of Vibrio infections in humans. Rapid and accurate identification of Vibrio species has been problematic because(More)
In September and October 1978, after a case of cholera had been discovered in southwestern Louisiana, 10 more Vibrio cholerae O-Group 1 infections were detected in four additional clusters. All 11 infected persons had recently eaten cooked crabs from five widely separated sites in the coastal marsh, and a matched-triplet case-control study showed a(More)
To evaluate the laboratory techniques for subtyping isolates of Salmonella enteritidis, we compared the plasmid profiles (PP), phage types (PT), and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AS) of two nationally representative samples of sporadic human S. enteritidis isolates from 1979 (n = 28) and 1984 (n = 37), 43 isolates from 20 outbreaks of S.(More)
Of 105 Salmonella organisms of any serotype selected from a sample of 1,824 serotyped salmonellae isolated during a nationwide bacteriologic survey of healthy broiler chickens after slaughter, 60 (57%) were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agents and 47 (45%) were resistant to 2 or more agents. Highest resistance was to tetracycline (45%), streptomycin(More)
The Moore swab method was shown to be a practical and sensitive technique for the isolation of Vibrio cholerae from sewage. In each of three instances in which cholera patients lived in homes connected to municipal sewers, V. cholerae was isolated from the community sewage plant intake at the time of the patients illness. Sewer systems became negative(More)