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BACKGROUND Glutamine (GLN) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) but its effect on alveolar macrophages is unknown. We hypothesized that GLN pretreatment would induce the anti-inflammatory CD163/heme oxygenase (HO)-1/p38-MAPK dephosphorylation pathway in alveolar macrophages and reduce ALI in rats insufflated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide(More)
Epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological evidence suggests that black people are more susceptible to tuberculosis than are white people. The cellular basis of this putative susceptibility was investigated in vitro by comparing responses of blood-derived macrophages from black and white donors to experimental infection with virulent tubercle bacilli.(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by increased alveolar cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and alveolar cell apoptosis. Previous work suggested that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) may contribute to oxidative stress in ALI as a product of the vascular endothelial cell. We present evidence that cytokine induced lung(More)
Impairment of cardiac contractile function is an important component of acetate associated hypotension during hemodialysis treatments. We examined the effect of acetate on cardiac energy metabolism using the isovolumic isolated perfused heart model. In this preparation, acetate (10 M) caused decreases in tissue ATP concentrations (12.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 15.6 +/-(More)
Hydrophobic bile acids may cause hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis during cholestatic liver diseases. The mechanism for this injury may involve mitochondrial dysfunction and the generation of oxidant stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of oxidant stress and the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) in(More)
Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid was obtained from a 24-year-old man who developed the adult respiratory distress syndrome one day after massive trauma and hemorrhagic shock. The lungs were available 3 days later when organ transplantation was performed. When the various fractions of the lavage material obtained by centrifugation, including the purified(More)
Hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr (spin I=9/2) is a promising gas-phase contrast agent that displays sensitivity to the surface chemistry, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature of the surrounding environment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates the feasibility of ex vivo hp (83)Kr magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lungs using natural abundance(More)
Isolated perfused rat hearts were used to study the effects of metabolic acidosis on energy metabolism. Hearts perfused with different substrates (glucose, pyruvate, and succinate) were subjected to metabolic acidosis. With all substrates, there were comparable decrements in oxygen consumption (approximately 35%), cardiac function (decrease in first(More)
The protective effects of pharmacological inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) have implicated XOR in many inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, the role played by XOR during inflammation is poorly understood. We previously observed that inhibition of XOR within the inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) prevented neutrophil recruitment during(More)
Ofloxacin (OFL) is a new broad-spectrum drug with potentially valuable antimycobacterial activity. It was tested for ability to inhibit virulent tubercle bacilli (TB) and virulent Mycobacterium avium in cultured human macrophages (MP). The first-line antituberculosis drug rifampin (RMP) also was tested against TB in MP. The drugs were added to the MP(More)