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Despite the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations are among the most ancient, abundant and important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems, there are currently few unifying theories that can be used to help understand the factors that control their structure and function. This review explores how a stoichiometric perspective facilitates(More)
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 394-407 Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are integral components of grasslands because most plants are associated with interconnected networks of AM hyphae. Mycor-rhizae generally facilitate plant uptake of nutrients from the soil. However, mycorrhizal associations are known to vary in their mutualistic function, and there is currently no metric that links AM(More)
We examined plant community responses to interactions between arbuscular mycor-rhizal (AM) fungi and availability of atmospheric CO 2 and soil N. Communities of 14 plant species were grown in mesocosms containing living or killed AM fungal inoculum, ambient or elevated atmospheric CO 2 and low or enriched soil N. After one growing season, significantly(More)
Mycorrhizal phenotypes arise from interactions among plant and fungal genotypes and the environment. Differences in the stoichiometry and uptake capacity of fungi and plants make arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inherently more nitrogen (N) limited and less phosphorus (P) limited than their host plants. Mutualistic phenotypes are most likely in P-limited(More)
Recent studies have questioned the validity of the mutualism-parasitism continuum of mycorrhizal function. This paper re-evaluates the continuum model and analyzes these concerns. Three insights arise from this analysis. First, the continuum model defines mycorrhizal function as an emergent property of complex interactions. The model identifies resource(More)
Traditional approaches to the study of food webs emphasize the transfer of local primary productivity in the form of living plant organic matter across trophic levels. However, dead organic matter, or detritus, a common feature of most ecosystems plays a frequently overlooked role as a dynamic heterogeneous resource and habitat for many species. We develop(More)
Symbioses may be important mechanisms of plant adaptation to their environment. We conducted a reciprocal inoculation experiment to test the hypothesis that soil fertility is a key driver of local adaptation in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses. Ecotypes of Andropogon gerardii from phosphorus-limited and nitrogen-limited grasslands were grown with all(More)
• We enumerated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spore communities for 3 yr as part of a long-term CO 2 enrichment experiment at Cedar Creek, Minnesota, USA. Complete factorial combinations of two levels of CO 2 and N, and 16 perennial plant species grown in monoculture and 16-species polyculture were arranged in a split-plot design. • In 1998 – 2000,(More)
Communities of plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to influence soil stability individually, but their relative contributions, interactions, and combined effects are not well understood, particularly in arid and semiarid ecosystems. In a landscape-scale field study we quantified plant, BSC, and AM fungal(More)