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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are integral components of grasslands because most plants are associated with interconnected networks of AM hyphae. Mycor-rhizae generally facilitate plant uptake of nutrients from the soil. However, mycorrhizal associations are known to vary in their mutualistic function, and there is currently no metric that links AM(More)
Despite the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations are among the most ancient, abundant and important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems, there are currently few unifying theories that can be used to help understand the factors that control their structure and function. This review explores how a stoichiometric perspective facilitates(More)
It has been noted previously that nutrient-stressed plants generally release more soluble carbohydrate in root exudates and consequently support more mycorrhizae than plants supplied with ample nutrients. Fertilization may select strains of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi that are inferior mutualists if the same characteristics that make a VAM(More)
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 394-407 Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the(More)
Traditional approaches to the study of food webs emphasize the transfer of local primary productivity in the form of living plant organic matter across trophic levels. However, dead organic matter, or detritus, a common feature of most ecosystems plays a frequently overlooked role as a dynamic heterogeneous resource and habitat for many species. We develop(More)
Mycorrhizal phenotypes arise from interactions among plant and fungal genotypes and the environment. Differences in the stoichiometry and uptake capacity of fungi and plants make arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inherently more nitrogen (N) limited and less phosphorus (P) limited than their host plants. Mutualistic phenotypes are most likely in P-limited(More)
The species composition of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal communities changed during secondary succession of abandoned fields based on a field to forest chronosequence. Twenty-five VAM fungal species were identified. Seven species were clearly early successional and five species were clearly late successional. The total number of VAM fungal(More)
We examined plant community responses to interactions between arbuscular mycor-rhizal (AM) fungi and availability of atmospheric CO 2 and soil N. Communities of 14 plant species were grown in mesocosms containing living or killed AM fungal inoculum, ambient or elevated atmospheric CO 2 and low or enriched soil N. After one growing season, significantly(More)
Symbioses may be important mechanisms of plant adaptation to their environment. We conducted a reciprocal inoculation experiment to test the hypothesis that soil fertility is a key driver of local adaptation in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses. Ecotypes of Andropogon gerardii from phosphorus-limited and nitrogen-limited grasslands were grown with all(More)
Wildfires and alien grass invasion threaten dry tropical forests throughout Central America. Efforts to preserve and restore these forests will require a better understanding of how conversion to grassland changes key belowground processes and organisms such as soil organic matter, nutrient cycling, and mycorrhizae. We studied forest, edge, and grassland(More)