Nancy C Sambol

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The influence of the choice of pharmacokinetic model on subsequent determination of covariate relationships in population pharmacokinetic analysis was studied using both simulated and real data sets. Simulations and data analysis were both performed with the program NONMEM. Data were simulated using a two-compartment model, but at late sample times, so that(More)
The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6. Our aim was to determine whether higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, aged 2-84 months,(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of short-acting dihydroartemisinin and long-acting piperaquine (DP) is among the first-line therapies for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Population pharmacokinetic models of piperaquine (PQ) based on data from acute treatment of young children can be used to predict exposure profiles of piperaquine(More)
BACKGROUND The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lumefantrine, a component of the most widely used treatment for malaria, artemether-lumefantrine, has not been adequately characterized in young children. METHODS Capillary whole-blood lumefantrine concentration and treatment outcomes were determined in 105 Ugandan children, ages 6 months to 2 years,(More)
In the development of an analgesic product, placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with defined pain are used to study the dose-time-response relationship of the drug. In such trials, the response is usually an ordered categorical variable with longitudinal and subject-specific repeated measurements. The primary causal variables are time and(More)
Data from analgesic clinical trials have characteristics such as ordered categorical longitudinal responses with repeated measures, delay of effect with respect to analgesic plasma concentration, and right-hand censoring of response due to remedication. In order to determine the concentration-effect relationship of such data, we propose convolving an(More)
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