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Traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The devastating impact of 'trauma', a term used to define the global burden of disease related to all injuries, is the leading cause of loss of human potential across the globe, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Enormous challenges must be(More)
P ractice guidelines for physicians who treat children with brain trauma are long overdue. A significant barrier to producing guidelines has been the lack of data from well-designed, controlled studies that address each specific juncture of the acute treatment phase. Our goal with this document was to assimilate the scarce data that exist and present it(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, there is no evidence-based definition for concussion that is being uniformly applied in clinical and research settings. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of the highest-quality literature about concussion and to assemble evidence about the prevalence and associations of key indicators of concussion. The goal was to establish(More)
OBJECT In spite of evidence that use of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Guidelines) would dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality, adherence to these Guidelines remains variable across trauma centers. The authors analyzed 2-week mortality due to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from 2001(More)
In this study, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of the effects of hypothermia therapy on mortality, favorable neurologic outcome, and associated adverse effects in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) for use by Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF)/American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) task force to develop evidence-based treatment(More)
OBJECT Evidence-based guidelines recommend intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there is limited evidence that monitoring and treating intracranial hypertension reduces mortality. This study uses a large, prospectively collected database to examine the effect on 2-week mortality of ICP reduction(More)
OBJECT The normalization of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is assumed to limit secondary brain injury and improve outcome. Despite evidence-based recommendations for monitoring and treatment of elevated ICP, there are few studies that show an association between response to ICP-directed therapeutic(More)
BACKGROUND Although in the developed world the intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor is considered the standard of care for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), its usefulness to direct treatment decisions has never been tested rigorously. OBJECTIVE The primary focus was to conduct a high-quality, randomized, controlled trial to determine(More)
In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the influence on important outcomes of the use of information from intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to direct treatment has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We are conducting an RCT in six trauma centers in Latin America to test this question. We hypothesize that patients(More)
The scope and purpose of this work is 2-fold: to synthesize the available evidence and to translate it into recommendations. This document provides recommendations only when there is evidence to support them. As such, they do not constitute a complete protocol for clinical use. Our intention is that these recommendations be used by others to develop(More)