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Traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The devastating impact of 'trauma', a term used to define the global burden of disease related to all injuries, is the leading cause of loss of human potential across the globe, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Enormous challenges must be(More)
P ractice guidelines for physicians who treat children with brain trauma are long overdue. A significant barrier to producing guidelines has been the lack of data from well-designed, controlled studies that address each specific juncture of the acute treatment phase. Our goal with this document was to assimilate the scarce data that exist and present it(More)
Children and adolescents who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be left with multiple deficits and impairments that can impact adversely their abilities to return to premorbid functioning in the home, school and community. Early rehabilitation has been shown to improve functional outcome; the rehabilitation programme itself has to be based on(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, there is no evidence-based definition for concussion that is being uniformly applied in clinical and research settings. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of the highest-quality literature about concussion and to assemble evidence about the prevalence and associations of key indicators of concussion. The goal was to establish(More)
In this study, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of the effects of hypothermia therapy on mortality, favorable neurologic outcome, and associated adverse effects in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) for use by Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF)/American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) task force to develop evidence-based treatment(More)
OBJECT In spite of evidence that use of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Guidelines) would dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality, adherence to these Guidelines remains variable across trauma centers. The authors analyzed 2-week mortality due to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from 2001(More)