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The Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) gene encodes an inducible component of low-affinity nitrate uptake, which necessitates a "two-component" model to account for the constitutive low-affinity uptake observed in physiological studies. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a CHL1 homolog, AtNRT1:2 (originally named NTL1), with data to indicate that(More)
The Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) gene confers sensitivity to the herbicide chlorate and encodes a nitrate-regulated nitrate transporter. However, how CHL1 participates in nitrate uptake in plants is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the in vivo function of CHL1 with in vivo uptake measurements and in situ hybridization experiments. Under most(More)
Type II topoisomerases (TOP2) are enzymes that resolve the topological problems during DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving both strands and forming a cleavage complex with the DNA. Several prominent anti-cancer agents inhibit TOP2 by stabilizing the cleavage complex and engendering permanent DNA breakage. To discriminate drug binding(More)
BACKGROUND Metformin has been reported to reduce cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin on endothelial cells and the related molecular mechanisms. METHODS Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used for the experiments. The effects of(More)
In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and(More)
AIM To investigate whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist, had inhibitory effects on inflammatory reactions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). METHODS TNF-α-induced IL-6 production was measured by ELISA and effects on related signaling pathways were investigated by immunoblot analysis. Cellular cAMP level was measured using(More)
The binding of glycans to proteins represents the major way in which the information contained in glycan structures is recognised, deciphered and put into biological action. The physiological and pathological significance of glycan–protein interactions are drawing increasing attention in the field of structure-based drug design. We have implemented a(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Our aim was to investigate the calcium content of different gallstone compositions and the pathogenic mechanisms of calcium carbonate gallstones. METHODS Between August 2001 and July 2007, gallstones from 481 patients, including 68 calcium carbonate gallstones, were analyzed for total calcium content. Gallbladder bile samples from 33(More)
Type II topoisomerases resolve topological problems of DNA double helices by passing one duplex through the reversible double-stranded break they generated on another duplex. Despite the wealth of information in the cleaving operation, molecular understanding of the enzymatic DNA ligation remains elusive. Topoisomerase poisons are widely used in anti-cancer(More)