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This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random(More)
Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the(More)
We describe a broad class of family-based association tests that are adjusted for admixture; use either dichotomous or measured phenotypes; accommodate phenotype-unknown subjects; use nuclear families, sibships or a combination of the two, permit multiple nuclear families from a single pedigree; incorporate di- or multi-allelic marker data; allow additive,(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess incidence and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) and potential ADEs. To analyze preventable events to develop prevention strategies. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS All 4031 adult admissions to a stratified random sample of 11 medical and surgical units in two tertiary care hospitals over a 6-month period.(More)
With possibly incomplete nuclear families, the family based association test (FBAT) method allows one to evaluate any test statistic that can be expressed as the sum of products (covariance) between an arbitrary function of an offspring's genotype with an arbitrary function of the offspring's phenotype. We derive expressions needed to calculate the mean and(More)
BACKGROUND As part of an interdisciplinary study of medical injury and malpractice litigation, we estimated the incidence of adverse events, defined as injuries caused by medical management, and of the subgroup of such injuries that resulted from negligent or substandard care. METHODS We reviewed 30,121 randomly selected records from 51 randomly selected(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the additional resource utilization associated with an adverse drug event (ADE). DESIGN Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS The cohort included 4108 admissions to a stratified random sample of 11 medical and surgical units in 2 tertiary-care hospitals over a 6-month period. Cases were patients(More)
BACKGROUND As part of an interdisciplinary study of medical injury and malpractice litigation, we estimated the incidence of adverse events, defined as injuries caused by medical management, and of the subgroup of such injuries that resulted from negligent or substandard care. METHODS We reviewed 30121 randomly selected records from 51 randomly selected(More)
BACKGROUND In a sample of 30,195 randomly selected hospital records, we identified 1133 patients (3.7 percent) with disabling injuries caused by medical treatment. We report here an analysis of these adverse events and their relation to error, negligence, and disability. METHODS Two physician-reviewers independently identified the adverse events and(More)