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Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome(More)
Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genomewide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and(More)
Restoring disturbed and over-exploited ecosystems is important to mitigate human pressures on natural ecosystems. China has launched an ambitious national ecosystem restoration program called Grain to Green Program (GTGP) over the last decade. By using remote sensing techniques and ecosystem modelling, we quantitatively evaluated the changes in ecosystem(More)
Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China's northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To(More)
The engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an evolutionarily conserved process that efficiently removes dying cells from animal bodies during development. Here, we report that clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1), a membrane coat protein well known for its role in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and its adaptor epsin (EPN-1) play(More)
A chemically dynamic spermine-based polymer: polyspermine imidazole-4, 5-amide (PSIA, Mw > 7 kDa) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in terms of its ability to deliver nucleic acids. This polymer was made from an endogenous monomer professionally condensing genes in sperms, spermine, and a known safety drug metabolite, imidazole-4, 5-dicarboxylic(More)
Recent studies indicate that soluble oligomers drive pathogenesis in several neurodegenerative proteinopathies, including Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Curiously, the same conformational antibody recognizes different disease-related oligomers, despite the variations in clinical presentation and brain regions affected, suggesting that the oligomer(More)
Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific(More)
Trade-off is defined as a situation where one ecosystem service (ES) increases while another decreases. In a broader sense, trade-off also refers to unidirectional changes with uneven paces or rates in ESs. Although trade-off analysis for multiple ESs is more integral for ecosystem assessment and management, studies regarding trade-offs are rare in the(More)
Due to the defects of all kinds of modularity, this paper defines a weighted modularity based on the density and cohesion as the new evaluation measurement. Since the proportion of the overlapping nodes in network is very low, the number of the nodes' repeat visits can be reduced by signing the vertices with the overlapping attributes. In this paper, we(More)