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Accurately quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for modelling regional-scale ecosystem water balances. This study assembled an ET data set estimated from eddy flux and sapflow measurements for 13 ecosystems across a large climatic and management gradient from the United States, China, and Australia. Our objectives were to determine the(More)
Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome(More)
The Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) provides long-wavelength capability for the mission in imaging bands at 24, 70, and 160 m and measurements of spectral energy distributions between 52 and 100 m at a spectral resolution of about 7%. By using true detector arrays in each band, it provides both critical sampling of the Spitzer point-spread(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase(More)
Apoptosis ensures quick death and quiet clearance of unwanted or damaged cells, without inducing much, if any, immunological responses from the organism. In metazoan organisms, apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by other cells. The degradation of cellular content is initiated in apoptotic cells and completed within engulfing cells. In apoptotic cells,(More)
Dynamins are large GTPases that act in multiple vesicular trafficking events. We identified 14 loss-of-function alleles of the C. elegans dynamin gene, dyn-1, that are defective in the removal of apoptotic cells. dyn-1 functions in engulfing cells to control the internalization and degradation of apoptotic cells. dyn-1 acts in the genetic pathway composed(More)
This Account describes a new paradigm, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning, for large-area patterning with mesostructured features based on the well-established LB technique. This strategy uses a simple fabrication technique to control the alignment, size, shape, and periodicity of self-organized phospholipid monolayer patterns with feature sizes down to 100(More)
Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genomewide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and(More)
The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socioeconomic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional(More)
PURPOSE The most appropriate procedure for surgical treatment of severe acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation was still not clear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of coracoclavicular (CC) reconstruction with ligament augmentation and reconstruction system (LARS) artificial ligaments for the treatment of acute complete AC joint(More)