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Dynamins are large GTPases that act in multiple vesicular trafficking events. We identified 14 loss-of-function alleles of the C. elegans dynamin gene, dyn-1, that are defective in the removal of apoptotic cells. dyn-1 functions in engulfing cells to control the internalization and degradation of apoptotic cells. dyn-1 acts in the genetic pathway composed(More)
Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome(More)
Accurately quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for modelling regional-scale ecosystem water balances. This study assembled an ET data set estimated from eddy flux and sapflow measurements for 13 ecosystems across a large climatic and management gradient from the United States, China, and Australia. Our objectives were to determine the(More)
Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genomewide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase(More)
Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China's northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To(More)
We performed a genome-wide association study with 706 individuals with leprosy and 5,581 control individuals and replicated the top 24 SNPs in three independent replication samples, including a total of 3,301 individuals with leprosy and 5,299 control individuals from China. Two loci not previously associated with the disease were identified with(More)
Restoring disturbed and over-exploited ecosystems is important to mitigate human pressures on natural ecosystems. China has launched an ambitious national ecosystem restoration program called Grain to Green Program (GTGP) over the last decade. By using remote sensing techniques and ecosystem modelling, we quantitatively evaluated the changes in ecosystem(More)
The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socio-economic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional(More)
Apoptosis ensures quick death and quiet clearance of unwanted or damaged cells, without inducing much, if any, immunological responses from the organism. In metazoan organisms, apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by other cells. The degradation of cellular content is initiated in apoptotic cells and completed within engulfing cells. In apoptotic cells,(More)