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Nine human neurodegenerative diseases are due to expansion of a CAG repeat- encoding glutamine within the open reading frame of the respective genes. Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion confers dominant toxicity, resulting in neuronal degeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to modulate programmed cell death during development. To address whether miRNA(More)
We investigated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on the recovery of neurological functions in rat's MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) model and its mechanism. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female adult SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: sham-operated(More)
Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans (5.5!10 to 15.5!10 Da) with the same degree of deacetylation (80%G0.29), were obtained by the method of acetic acid hydrolysis. The effect of antimicrobial activities of chitosan and acetic acid against Escherichia coli were investigated. All of the chitosan samples with MW from 5.5!10 to 15.5!10 Da had(More)
FoxO proteins are evolutionarily conserved regulators of neuronal structure and function, yet the neuron-specific pathways within which they act are poorly understood. To elucidate neuronal FoxO function in Drosophila melanogaster, we first screened for FoxO's upstream regulators and downstream effectors. On the upstream side, we present genetic and(More)
Using TLR agonists in cancer treatment can have either beneficial or detrimental effects. Therefore, it is important to determine their effect on the tumor growth and understand the underlying mechanisms in animal tumor models. In this study, we report a general immunotherapeutic activity of a synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/TLR2 agonist, on(More)
In many species, the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces potent and specific gene silencing, a phenomenon called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is the process of sequence-specific, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in animals and plants, mediated by dsRNA homologous to the silenced genes. In plants, PTGS is part of a defense mechanism(More)
The ability of animals to respond to life-threatening stimuli is essential for survival. Although vision provides one of the major sensory inputs for detecting threats across animal species, the circuitry underlying defensive responses to visual stimuli remains poorly defined. Here, we investigate the circuitry underlying innate defensive behaviours(More)
The potential of grazing lands to sequester carbon must be understood to develop effective soil conservation measures and sustain livestock production. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of grazing on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in Typical steppe and Desert steppe ecosystems, which are both important(More)
OBJECTIVES The distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones is dynamic and geographically unique. To understand the changing epidemiology of MRSA infections in China, we performed a prospective, multicity surveillance study with molecular typing and phenotypic analysis to determine the association of major prevalent clones with(More)