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Introduction o How many resources should be used to enforce the laws? Is there an optimal level of crime? o The optimal level of enforcement depends of costs of apprehension, conviction, punishment and the elasticity of the supply of crime with respect to changes in enforcement • Economics allows us to take these parameters and to minimize social loss. •(More)
The prediction of regulatory elements is a problem where computational methods offer great hope. Over the past few years, numerous tools have become available for this task. The purpose of the current assessment is twofold: to provide some guidance to users regarding the accuracy of currently available tools in various settings, and to provide a benchmark(More)
The United Nations (UN) recently released population projections based on data until 2012 and a Bayesian probabilistic methodology. Analysis of these data reveals that, contrary to previous literature, the world population is unlikely to stop growing this century. There is an 80% probability that world population, now 7.2 billion people, will increase to(More)
It is widely accepted that addictive drug use is related to abnormal functional organization in the user's brain. The present study aimed to identify this type of abnormality within the brain networks implicated in addiction by resting-state functional connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With fMRI data acquired during(More)
We characterize and measure a long-term risk-return trade-off for the valuation of cash flows exposed to fluctuations in macroeconomic growth. This trade-off features risk prices of cash flows that are realized far into the future but continue to be reflected in asset values. We apply this analysis to claims on aggregate cash flows and to cash flows from(More)
MOTIVATION The next-generation high-throughput sequencing technologies, especially from Illumina, have been widely used in re-sequencing and de novo assembly studies. However, there is no existing software that can simulate Illumina reads with real error and quality distributions and coverage bias yet, which is very useful in relevant software development(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Alpha-synuclein aggregation, which can activate microglia to enhance its dopaminergic neurotoxicity, plays a central role in the progression of PD. However the mechanism is still unclear. To investigate how alpha-synuclein affects the neuron, exosomes were derived from alpha-synuclein(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Text mining Sentiment analysis Cluster analysis Online sports forums Dynamic interacting network analysis Hotspot detection Machine learning Support vector machine Text sentiment analysis, also referred to as emotional polarity computation, has become a flourishing frontier in the text mining community. This paper studies(More)
It is a common spoof to use a photograph to fool face recognition algorithm. In light of differences in optical flow fields generated by movements of two-dimensional planes and three-dimensional objects, we proposed a new liveness detection method for face recognition. Under the assumption that the test region is a two-dimensional plane, we can obtain a(More)
Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed recently, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically target these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks.(More)