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Introduction o How many resources should be used to enforce the laws? Is there an optimal level of crime? o The optimal level of enforcement depends of costs of apprehension, conviction, punishment and the elasticity of the supply of crime with respect to changes in enforcement • Economics allows us to take these parameters and to minimize social loss. •(More)
The prediction of regulatory elements is a problem where computational methods offer great hope. Over the past few years, numerous tools have become available for this task. The purpose of the current assessment is twofold: to provide some guidance to users regarding the accuracy of currently available tools in various settings, and to provide a benchmark(More)
The United Nations (UN) recently released population projections based on data until 2012 and a Bayesian probabilistic methodology. Analysis of these data reveals that, contrary to previous literature, the world population is unlikely to stop growing this century. There is an 80% probability that world population, now 7.2 billion people, will increase to(More)
It is widely accepted that addictive drug use is related to abnormal functional organization in the user's brain. The present study aimed to identify this type of abnormality within the brain networks implicated in addiction by resting-state functional connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With fMRI data acquired during(More)
We characterize and measure a long-term risk-return trade-off for the valuation of cash flows exposed to fluctuations in macroeconomic growth. This trade-off features risk prices of cash flows that are realized far into the future but continue to be reflected in asset values. We apply this analysis to claims on aggregate cash flows and to cash flows from(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Alpha-synuclein aggregation, which can activate microglia to enhance its dopaminergic neurotoxicity, plays a central role in the progression of PD. However the mechanism is still unclear. To investigate how alpha-synuclein affects the neuron, exosomes were derived from alpha-synuclein(More)
MOTIVATION The next-generation high-throughput sequencing technologies, especially from Illumina, have been widely used in re-sequencing and de novo assembly studies. However, there is no existing software that can simulate Illumina reads with real error and quality distributions and coverage bias yet, which is very useful in relevant software development(More)
We investigate a method for extracting nonlinear principal components. These principal components maximize variation subject to smoothness and orthogonality constraints; but we allow for a general class of constraints and densities, including densities without compact support and even densities with algebraic tails. We provide primitive sufficient(More)
A complex of the three (αεθ) core subunits and the β2 sliding clamp is responsible for DNA synthesis by Pol III, the Escherichia coli chromosomal DNA replicase. The 1.7 Å crystal structure of a complex between the PHP domain of α (polymerase) and the C-terminal segment of ε (proofreading exonuclease) subunits shows that ε is attached to α at a site far from(More)
Current MOOCs emphasize offering individualistic learning experiences, and most MOOC research is centered on this context. Recent research also suggests that MOOC students may prefer to study in groups. Social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report a longitudinal study that(More)