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Health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments have been used to measure HRQL in heart failure patients, but how different instruments compare in the same groups of patients is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of three HRQL measures in 211 heart failure patients recruited from clinics affiliated with an(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been shown to influence autoimmune diseases; however, its function in viral infection has not been well-defined. We therefore investigated the expression and regulatory function of Tim-3 in natural killer (NK) cells in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The gene regulation mechanism along the life cycle of the genus Schistosoma is complex. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential post transcriptional gene regulation elements that affect gene expression and mRNA stability. Preliminary studies indicated that sncRNAs in schistosomal parasites are generated through different pathways, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Although health-related quality of life is diminished among patients with chronic heart failure, few investigators have examined interactions of age and sex with health-related quality of life longitudinally. OBJECTIVES To examine differences in health-related quality of life among 4 groups of patients with heart failure on the basis of age (<(More)
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), as one of the most sensitive and precise gene expression analysis methods, is frequently used to validate data obtained in high-through-put assays. qPCR requires reference genes with stable transcription for accurate normalization. However, no systematic studies on such genes have been performed in(More)
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been reported to participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. However, whether Tim-3 is involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of Tim-3 in a hydrodynamics-based mouse model of HBV infection. A(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) may play important roles during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we used a recombinant human soluble death receptor 5 (sDR5) to explore its effect in a mouse model of HBV-induced acute hepatitis. By measuring blood transaminase activity and hepatocyte apoptosis, we found that(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis. The typical outcome of schistosomiasis is hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which is primarily induced by soluble egg-derived antigens. Although schistosomal eggs represent an important pathogenic stage to the host, the biology of this critical stage is largely(More)
BACKGROUND The complex life cycle of the genus Schistosoma drives the parasites to employ subtle developmentally dependent gene regulatory machineries. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential gene regulatory factors that, through their impact on mRNA and genome stability, control stage-specific gene expression. Abundant sncRNAs have been identified in(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public health problem in China and Southeast Asian countries. The most typical and serious outcome of the chronic oriental schistosomiasis is the progressive granuloma and fibrosis in the host liver, which has been a major medical challenge. However, the molecular mechanism underling the hepatic(More)