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BACKGROUND Although health-related quality of life is diminished among patients with chronic heart failure, few investigators have examined interactions of age and sex with health-related quality of life longitudinally. OBJECTIVES To examine differences in health-related quality of life among 4 groups of patients with heart failure on the basis of age (<(More)
BACKGROUND Although numerous health-related quality-of-life instruments are available to measure patients' quality of life, few studies have compared these measures directly to determine how they function in the same group of patients. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to empirically compare psychometric properties of the Chronic Heart Failure(More)
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments have been used to measure HRQL in heart failure patients, but how different instruments compare in the same groups of patients is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of three HRQL measures in 211 heart failure patients recruited from clinics affiliated with an(More)
Cell-mediated immune responses play important roles in immune protection against Plasmodium infection. However, impaired immunity, such as lymphocyte exhaustion, is a common phenomenon in malaria. T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is an important regulatory molecule in cell-mediated immunity and has been implicated in(More)
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), as one of the most sensitive and precise gene expression analysis methods, is frequently used to validate data obtained in high-through-put assays. qPCR requires reference genes with stable transcription for accurate normalization. However, no systematic studies on such genes have been performed in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been shown to influence autoimmune diseases; however, its function in viral infection has not been well-defined. We therefore investigated the expression and regulatory function of Tim-3 in natural killer (NK) cells in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection. METHODS(More)
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been reported to participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. However, whether Tim-3 is involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of Tim-3 in a hydrodynamics-based mouse model of HBV infection. A(More)
BACKGROUND The gene regulation mechanism along the life cycle of the genus Schistosoma is complex. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential post transcriptional gene regulation elements that affect gene expression and mRNA stability. Preliminary studies indicated that sncRNAs in schistosomal parasites are generated through different pathways, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis. The typical outcome of schistosomiasis is hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which is primarily induced by soluble egg-derived antigens. Although schistosomal eggs represent an important pathogenic stage to the host, the biology of this critical stage is largely(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis (AS) has many features of a chronic inflammatory disease in which both adaptive and innate immune cells play roles. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the impairment of circulating natural killer (NK) cells in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms of this impairment remain unclear. We previously reported the suppression of NK(More)