The present study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of spinosin, one of the major flavonoids in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS), in experimental models of anxiety compared with a known anxiolytic, diazepam. Repeated treatment with spinosin (2.5 and 5mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms… (More)
BACKGROUND The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar… (More)
BACKGROUND Yersinia pestis synthesizes the attached biofilms in the flea proventriculus, which is important for the transmission of this pathogen by fleas. The hmsHFRS operons is responsible for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (the major component of biofilm matrix), which is activated by the signaling molecule 3', 5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP)… (More)
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is transmitted among mammals (including humans) primarily via the bite of infected fleas. Flea-borne transmission distinguishes Y. pestis from its progenitor Y. pseudotuberculosis, which is a mild food-borne pathogen (Zhou and Yang, 2011). In Y. pestis, transmission by fleas involves the synthesis of biofilms… (More)
Chaitin's number Ω is the halting probability of a universal prefix-free machine, and although it depends on the underlying enumeration of prefix-free machines, it is always Turing-complete. It can be observed, in fact, that for every computably enumerable (c.e.) real α, there exists a Turing functional via which Ω computes α, and such that the number of… (More)
Biofilm formation in flea gut is important for flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis. There are enhancing factors (HmsHFRS, HmsCDE, and HmsT) and inhibiting one (HmsP) for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation. The RcsAB regulatory complex acts as a repressor of Yesinia biofilm formation, and adaptive pseudogenization of rcsA promotes Y. pestis to evolve… (More)
The hmsHFRS operon is responsible for biosynthesis and translocation of biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide. Yersinia pestis expresses the two sole diguanylate cyclases HmsT and HmsD and the sole phosphodiesterase HmsP, which are specific for biosynthesis and degradation, respectively, of 3',5'-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a second messenger… (More)
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of "Paramesorhizobium deserti" A-3-E(T), a strain isolated from the Taklimakan Desert of Xinjiang, China, which is resistant to multiple β-lactam antibiotics and other antibiotics (kanamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, etc.) as well.