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Data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey have been used to examine breast-feeding patterns in the Metropolitan Cebu region of the Philippines. The results show that there is extensive and early use of non-nutritive liquids, resulting in low levels of exclusive breast-feeding. The use of cross-sectional versus longitudinal data, the(More)
BACKGROUND Nutritional intake has been overlooked as a possible contributing factor to lower-extremity physical performance, especially in homebound elderly persons. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to examine the association of a summary measure of calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus intakes with 1) the inability to perform lower-extremity(More)
Diets and activity patterns are changing rapidly in low-income countries, and problems of undernutrition and overnutrition commonly exist side by side. China has conquered problems of food scarcity at the national level and has undergone a remarkable transition in the structure of its diet in the last decade. In this paper, we use data from the 1989 China(More)
The effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on breast-feeding behavior have been sometimes found inadequate. The determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration among WIC participants and nonparticipants were modeled by using retrospective cross-sectional data from the 1988 National Maternal and(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among the homebound elderly and their correlation with individual characteristics and health-related factors remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE We assessed the extent of inadequate dietary intakes of key nutrients among the homebound elderly by using the newly released dietary reference intakes and(More)
The concepts of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneity are well-known among econometricians. However, these issues are rarely addressed in epidemiologic studies. This paper explores these two concepts, their relationship to each other, and the implications for analysis in epidemiologic studies. An endogenous variable is defined as a predictor variable(More)
BACKGROUND Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item(More)
Using data for a one-year period from the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) in Jamaica, we describe patterns of non-fatal violence-related injuries, and carry out simulation analysis to estimate rates of hospital admission under various injury reduction scenarios, and the potential savings that can be realized by reducing violent crimes. In this period there(More)
There is a general lack of data for studying the relationship between nutrition and healthy functioning among the elderly in developing countries. Nevertheless, knowledge of biological relationships from studies in other countries can be applied to gain an understanding of what can be expected in the developing world. In this respect, the concept of the(More)
PURPOSE Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we perform an empirical investigation of the effects of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneity in the analysis of health outcomes. METHODS First, we lay a theoretical background for this analysis and develop a set of expectations regarding the effects of ignoring endogeneity.(More)