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We investigate the hypothesis that oxidative damage of the cerebral vascular barrier interface (the blood-brain barrier, BBB) causes the development of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) during a primary blast-wave spectrum. The underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms of this vascular layer-structure injury are examined in a novel animal model of(More)
Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes are extensively used in laboratories to simulate field conditions, to identify mechanisms of injury, and to develop injury thresholds. In this article, we place rats in different locations(More)
Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices can cause mild, moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in soldiers and civilians. To understand the interactions of blast waves on the head and brain and to identify the mechanisms of injury, compression-driven air shock tubes are extensively used in laboratory settings to simulate the field(More)
The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected(More)
Recent studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pesticide exposure increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Using an in vitro model of TBI, we evaluated the role of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by stretch on dopaminergic(More)
Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death in the young age group and leads to persisting neurological impairment in many of its victims. It may result in permanent functional deficits because of both primary and secondary damages. This review addresses the role of oxidative stress in TBI-mediated secondary damages by affecting the function of(More)
Oxidative stress is a common hallmark of neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, as well as brain stroke/ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Increased accumulation of reactive species of both oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) has been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, energy(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Studies revealed that the pathogenesis of TBI involves upregulation of MMPs. MMPs form a large family of closely related zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which are primarily responsible for the dynamic remodulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Thus, they are involved in(More)
There is a great need to have in vitro cell injury model wherein a wide range of strain (ɛ) and strain rate (ε˙) can be precisely and independently applied. Such a model will enable exploration of various biomechanical loading conditions cells normally encounter during either blunt or blast impact-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). In combination with(More)