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On-chip caches represent a sizable fraction of the total power consumption of microprocessors. Although large caches can significantly improve performance, they have the potential to increase power consumption. As feature sizes shrink, the dominant component of this power loss will be leakage. However, during a fixed period of time the activity in a cache(More)
General-purpose GPUs (GPGPUs) are becoming prevalent in mainstream computing, and performance per watt has emerged as a more crucial evaluation metric than peak performance. As such, GPU architects require robust tools that will enable them to quickly explore new ways to optimize GPGPUs for energy efficiency. We propose a new GPGPU power model that is(More)
On-chip caches represent a sizeable fraction of the total power consumption of microprocessors. Although large caches can significantly improve performance, they have the potential to increase power consumption. As feature sizes shrink, the dominant component of this power loss will be leakage. In our previous work we have shown how the drowsy circuit---a(More)
Bias temperature instability, hot-carrier injection, and gate-oxide wear out will cause severe lifetime degradation in the performance and the reliability of future CMOS devices. The design guard band to counter these negative effects will be too expensive, largely due to the worst-case behavior induced by the uneven utilization of devices on the chip. To(More)
—On-chip caches represent a sizable fraction of the total power consumption of microprocessors. As feature sizes shrink, the dominant component of this power consumption will be leakage. However, during a fixed period of time, the activity in a data cache is only centered on a small subset of the lines. This behavior can be exploited to cut the leakage(More)
Voltage scaling is desirable in SRAM to reduce energy consumption. However, commercial SRAM is prone to functional failures when <i>V<sub>dd</sub></i> is scaled. Several SRAM designs scale <i>V<sub>dd</sub></i> to 200--300mV to minimize energy per access, but these designs do not consider SRAM robustness, limiting them to small arrays and sensor type(More)
Process variability from a range of sources is growing as technology scales below 65nm, resulting in increasingly nonuniform transistor delay and leakage power both within a die and across dies. As a result, the negative impact of process variations on the maximum operating frequency and the total power consumption of a processor is expected to worsen.(More)