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Members of the 14-3-3 protein family bind the human intermediate filament protein keratin 18 (K18) in vivo, in a cell-cycle- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified K18 Ser33 as an interphase phosphorylation site, which increases its phosphorylation during mitosis in cultured cells and regenerating liver, and as an in vitro cdc2 kinase(More)
The gains that have been made in characterizing some of the keratin posttranslational modifications have helped answer some questions regarding these modifications and have generated an information base for asking additional refined questions in future studies. Highlights of where we believe we currently stand with regard to keratin posttranslational(More)
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are major components of the mammalian cytoskeleton. They are among the most abundant cellular phosphoproteins; their phosphorylation typically involves multiple sites at repeat or unique motifs, preferentially within the "head" or "tail" domains. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are essential for the regulation of IF(More)
Simple epithelia express keratins 8 (K8) and 18 (K18) as their major intermediate filament proteins. We previously showed that several types of cell stress such as heat and virus infection result in a distinct hyperphosphorylated form of K8 (termed HK8). To better characterize K8/18 phosphorylation, we generated monoclonal antibodies by immunizing mice with(More)
Type I and II keratins help maintain the structural integrity of epithelial cells. Since apoptosis involves progressive cell breakdown, we examined its effect on human keratin polypeptides 8, 18, and 19 (K8, K18, K19) that are expressed in simple-type epithelia as noncovalent type I (K18, K19) and type II (K8) heteropolymers. Apoptosis induces rapid(More)
Keratin 8 (K8) variants predispose to human liver injury via poorly understood mechanisms. We generated transgenic mice that overexpress the human disease-associated K8 Gly61-to-Cys (G61C) variant and showed that G61C predisposes to liver injury and apoptosis and dramatically inhibits K8 phosphorylation at serine 73 (S73) via stress-activated kinases. This(More)
Keratin polypeptides 8 and 18 (K8/18) are the major intermediate filament proteins of simple-type epithelia. K18 Ser-33 phosphorylation regulates its binding to 14-3-3 proteins during mitosis. We studied the significance of keratin binding to 14-3-3 in transgenic mice that overexpress wild-type or Ser-33-->Ala (S33A) K18. In S33A but not wild-type(More)
The mammalian cell cytoskeleton consists of a diverse group of fibrillar elements that play a pivotal role in mediating a number of digestive and nondigestive cell functions, including secretion, absorption, motility, mechanical integrity, and mitosis. The cytoskeleton of higher-eukaryotic cells consists of three highly abundant major protein families:(More)
Keratin 8 (K8) serine 73 occurs within a relatively conserved type II keratin motif ((68)NQSLLSPL) and becomes phosphorylated in cultured cells and organs during mitosis, cell stress, and apoptosis. Here we show that Ser-73 is exclusively phosphorylated in vitro by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In cells, Ser-73 phosphorylation occurs in association(More)