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Estrogen has direct and indirect effects on mitochondrial activity, but the mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. Others reported that long-term estradiol (E(2)) treatment increased nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) protein in cerebral blood vessels of ovariectomized rats. NRF-1 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of(More)
Epidemiological studies correlate moderate red wine consumption to reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has cardioprotective effects in rodents. Although endothelial cell (EC) studies indicate that micromolar resveratrol has diverse biological activities, these concentrations are not(More)
Select changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression correlate with estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) expression in breast tumors. miR-21 is higher in ER alpha positive than negative tumors, but no one has examined how estradiol (E(2)) regulates miR-21 in breast cancer cells. Here we report that E(2) inhibits miR-21 expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.(More)
Tamoxifen (TAM) is successfully used for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However, many patients that are initially TAM responsive develop tumors that are antiestrogen/TAM resistant (TAM-R). The mechanism behind TAM resistance in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive tumors is not understood. The orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin(More)
Lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), cause endothelial activation, and they increase the adhesion of the endothelium to circulating leukocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We observed that in HNE-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, some of the protein-HNE adducts(More)
We previously demonstrated that overexpression of cathepsin B (CB) protease in oral squamous cell carcinomas correlated positively with advanced tumor stage and poor histologic malignancy grade. Here we examined whether CB contributes to the invasiveness of oral carcinoma cells. For RNA-mediated inhibition, two ribozymes that target CB mRNA were designed(More)
Long chain saturated fatty acids are known to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation; however, the mechanism of this inhibition is not known. Treatment of Hs578T breast cancer cells with long chain saturated fatty acids (0.15 mmol/L for 6 hours) before epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation in a(More)
Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major clinical problem in breast cancer. The role of ERalpha splice variants in endocrine resistance is largely unknown. We observed reduced protein expression of an N-terminally truncated ERalpha46 in endocrine-resistant LCC2, LCC9, and LY2 compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Transfection of LCC9 and LY2 cells with(More)
This article is an update of our earlier review (Lacey and Mullins, 1983) in this journal on the origin of the genetic code and the process of protein synthesis. It is our intent to discuss only experimental evidence published since then although there is the necessity to mention the old enough to place the new in context. We do not include theoretical nor(More)
We have studied the chemistry of aminoacyl AMP to model reactions at the 3′ terminus of aminoacyl tRNA for the purpose of understanding the origin of protein synthesis. The present studies relate to the D, L preference in the esterification of 5′-AMP. All N-acetyl amino acids we studied showed faster reaction of the D-isomer, with a generally decreasing(More)