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Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug which is extensively metabolized by the hepatic microsomal monooxygenases. Among other toxicities, CsA is nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic. In the present study, the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450-supported metabolism of CsA to reactive metabolite(s) capable of covalently binding to proteins was studied. The(More)
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received numerous reports of serious adverse events, including death, in patients using fentanyl transdermal systems (FTS). To gain a better understanding of these problems, the current research focuses on the in vitro characterization of fentanyl reservoir (Duragesic) and matrix (Mylan) systems with(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is included in some sunscreen formulations to physically block ultraviolet radiation. A dermal penetration study was conducted in minipigs with three TiO(2) particles (uncoated submicron sized, uncoated nano-sized, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer-coated nanosized) applied 5% by weight in a sunscreen. These and control(More)
Nanoparticles can be formed following degradation of medical devices such as orthopedic implants. To evaluate the safety of titanium alloy orthopedic materials, data are needed on the long-term distribution and tissue effects of injected titanium nanoparticles in experimental animals. In this study, we evaluated the tissue distribution and histopathological(More)
We previously reported that administration of dexamethasone (DEX) and other selected pharmacological agents to rats resulted in a profound increase in hepatic cytochrome P450 3A1 in both sexes, but male constitutive P450 3A2 was modestly increased (4-fold) in adult males and not detected in either treated or untreated females (Cooper et al., Arch. Biochem.(More)
Today nanotechnology is finding growing applications in industry, biology, and medicine. The clear benefits of using nanosized products in various biological and medical applications are often challenged by concerns about the lack of adequate data regarding their toxicity. One area of interest involves the interactions between nanoparticles and the(More)
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis, possibly due to its ability to block the activation or to enhance the detoxification of chemical carcinogens. The present study was conducted to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved by characterizing the effects of PEITC on(More)
We designed a study to provide reversibility and comparative injury data for several candidate urinary biomarkers of kidney injury in the United States Food and Drug Administration biomarker qualification process. The nephrotoxin gentamicin was given to rats once on each of three days and the animals were killed during dosing or over the following 42 days.(More)
Considerable media attention has recently been given to novel applications for products that contain nanoscale materials. These products could have utility in several industries that market consumer products, including textiles, sporting equipment, cosmetics, consumer electronics, and household cleaners. Some of the purported benefits of these products(More)