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Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading(More)
The structures of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) in Plasmodium have been described [Gerold, Schuppert and Schwarz (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2597-2606]. A detailed understanding of GPI synthesis in Plasmodium is a prerequisite for identifying differences present in biosynthetic pathways of parasites and host cells. A comparison of the biosynthetic(More)
Gadd45 family genes encode nuclear acidic proteins composed of Gadd45, MyD118, and CR6. Sequence analysis showed that Gadd45 family proteins (Gadd45, MyD118, and CR6) contain LXXLL signature motifs considered necessary and sufficient for the binding of several coactivators to nuclear receptors. Interaction between Gadd45 or CR6 and RXR alpha was confirmed(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces ovulation rate in rats. The present study was to investigate whether TCDD alters the progression of cell cycle, and thus resulting in the blockade of ovulation in gonadotropin-primed, immature rats. The ovulation rate and ovarian weight were reduced in intact rats given TCDD (32 µg/kg BW in corn oil) by(More)
We investigated the effects of substance P (SP) on nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in macrophages by measuring the production of nitrite and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein. In LPS-activated macrophages, SP stimulated NO production in time and concentration dependent manners. These SP effects were blocked by a specific(More)
Mannose analogues (2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-mannose) have been used to study glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPtdIns) biosynthesis and GPtdIns protein anchoring in protozoal and mammalian systems. The effects of these analogues on GPtdIns biosynthesis and GPtdIns-protein anchoring of the human malaria parasite(More)
In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicities of flavone (F01), 3-hydroxyflavone (F02), 6- hydroxyflavone (F03), 7-hydroxyflavone (F04), 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (F05), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (F06) and 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone (F07) to human cancer cells including P- glycoprotein (Pgp)-expressing HCT15 cells and its multidrug resistant subline, HCT15/CL02(More)
Administration of the excitotoxin kainate produces seizure activity and selective neuronal death in various brain areas. We examined the degeneration pattern of hippocampal neurons following systemic injections of kainate in the hamster and the rat. As reported, treatment with kainate resulted in severe neuronal loss in the hilus and CA3 in the rat. While(More)
The effects of two ginseng saponins having a different ratio of protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol saponins (PT) on the learning impairment induced by scopolamine, and learning and memory in mice were investigated in a passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. The ratio of PD and PT was 1.24 and 1.46, respectively. Before training, the(More)
Body temperatures of winter-resident Korean bats typically range from 10 degrees to 40 degrees C between August and September and from 3 degrees to 15 degrees C between January and April. To learn how behavior and the motor systems of heterothermic bats respond to this body-temperature variation, we examined whole-organism performance and the(More)