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BACKGROUND Prior research has demonstrated that there is some association between treatment engagement and treatment outcome in behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. However, many of these investigations have been limited by weak measurement of treatment engagement variables, failure to control for potentially important baseline variables, and failure(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES In traditional exposure therapy for phobias and anxiety disorders, reduction of fear responding is used as an index of learning. However, recent evidence in animal models suggests that sustained arousal and enhanced fear responding throughout exposure may actually predict better long-term outcomes (Rescorla, 2000). METHODS The(More)
The present studies investigated if retrieval cues (reminder objects) can attenuate context renewal of fear. In Study 1, 32 participants completed exposure in one of two contexts; 1-week follow-up testing occurred in a novel or the same context. Results indicated significant renewal of fear for those tested in a novel context. In Study 2, 40 participants(More)
Clinically, there is wide subscription to emotional processing theory (EPT; Foa & Kozak, 1986) as a model of therapeutic effectiveness of exposure therapy: EPT purports that exposure is maximal when (1) fear is activated (IFA), (2) fear subsides within sessions (WSH), and (3) fear subsides between sessions (BSH). This study examined these assumptions, using(More)
PURPOSE Female veterans are at high risk for sleep problems, and there is a need to provide effective treatment for this population who experience insomnia. This study's primary goal was to compare the acceptability of medication versus nonmedication treatments for insomnia among female veterans. In addition, we examined the role of patient age, severity of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, fear sometimes returns following successful therapy. Recent literature in animal models indicates that incorporating some aversive events into extinction training may offset these return of fear effects. METHODS The effect of occasional reinforced(More)