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Conditions of high and low optic flow were generated in a display used for a driving simulator. Thirty drivers were requested to produce vehicle speeds of either 30 or 60 mph with the geometric field of view at 25, 55, or 85 visual degrees. Drivers overestimated the production of 30 by 20 mph. It was also found that the production of speed was highly(More)
Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has proven to be very efficient in improving the surface finishing in material machining such as turning, milling, and drilling. Smart material actuators are used in such applications to vibrate the cutting tip while machining, hence, improving the manipulated surface. In order to(More)
Smart or active materials expand or deform as a response to external pressure, temperature, or electromagnetic field. The most commonly used active material in actuators is piezoelectric as it relates the electric field to mechanical compression and elongation. However, mathematical modeling of such actuators is tedious and complicated because of the(More)
In a simulated driving scenario, we investigated the production of vehicle velocity at 30 and 60 mph while varying the amount of optical flow (roadside trees versus no trees) and the geometric field of view (25, 55, and 85 horizontal degrees). Participant drivers were significantly less accurate in producing vehicle velocities of 30 mph as contrasted with(More)
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