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A series of neuroanatomical, biochemical, and histochemical studies have been conducted to determine the sources of cholinergic afferents to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) in the hamster. Following horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections that are restricted to the MOB, retrograde neuronal labeling is observed bilaterally in the anterior olfactory nucleus,(More)
The kynurenine pathway metabolites, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and L-kynurenine are convulsants, whereas kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Imbalances in the concentrations of these metabolites have been implicated in the etiology of human seizure disorders. In the present study, L-kynurenine and QUIN concentrations in(More)
The laminar distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase activity, dopamine and norepinephrine was determined in the dog olfactory bulb. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine were highest in the glomerular layer, whereas norepinephrine appeared to be more uniformly distributed across the layers. A similar distribution was observed within the(More)
Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxin and convulsant when injected directly into the brains of experimental animals and as such has been implicated in the etiology of human seizure disorders. In the present study, we quantified QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in spiking (focus) and nonspiking (nonfocus) regions of surgically resected human temporal(More)
We have isolated a brain-specific cDNA that encodes a Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransporter (BNPI). The nucleotide sequence of BNPI predicts a protein of 560 amino acids with 6-8 putative transmembrane-spanning segments that is approximately 32% identical to the rabbit kidney Na(+)-dependent Pi cotransporter. Expression of BNPI mRNA in(More)
The cholinergic innervation of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) is wholly extrinsic and is greatly attenuated by bilateral habenular destruction. We describe changes in the labeling of putative nicotinic receptors within this nucleus at 3, 5, or 11 days after bilateral habenular lesions. Adjacent tissue sections of the rat IPN were utilized for 3H-nicotine(More)
We show the levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of glutamic acid to GABA, changes in zebrafish retinal tissue during the light/dark cycle. Further, we identify two transcripts of the GAD67 gene, full-length GAD67 and the truncated 25 kDa alternative splice variant (ES), as the major GAD isoforms in this tissue.(More)
We measured CSF and serum concentrations of monoamines and monoamine metabolites in normal control subjects and in patients with partial epilepsy between and less than 2 h after complex partial seizures (CPS) or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCs). After SGTCs, concentrations of norepinephrine in CSF were significantly higher (p less than(More)
Recent reports about tyrosine hydroxylase and alpha 1-adrenoceptors in epileptic foci have suggested increased regional catecholaminergic activity, which may serve a compensatory, inhibitory role. We measured levels of catechols, including the precursor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), in(More)