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The physiology and circuitry associated with dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons (DCN) have been well described. The ability to remotely manipulate neuronal activity in these neurons would represent a step forward in the ability to understand the specific function of DCN neurons in hearing. Although, optogenetics has been used to study the function of pathways(More)
Animal models continue to improve our understanding of tinnitus pathogenesis and aid in development of new treatments. However, there are no diagnostic biomarkers for tinnitus-related pathophysiology for use in awake, freely moving animals. To address this disparity, two complementary methods were combined to examine reliable tinnitus models (rats(More)
Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs), including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory, and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012). The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness(More)
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