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In this paper, we address a question posed by L. Shapiro regarding algebraic and/or combinatorial characterizations of the elements of order 2 in the Riordan group. We present two classes of combinatorial matrices having pseudo-order 2. In one class, we find generalizations of Pascal's triangle and use some special cases to discover and prove interesting… (More)

In 2009, Shapiro posed the following question: " What is the asymptotic proportion of Dyck paths having an even number of hills? " In this paper, we answer Shapiro's question, as well as a generalization of the question to ternary paths. We find that the probability that a randomly chosen ternary path has an even number of hills approaches 125/169 as the… (More)

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