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BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and prevalence across populations can reveal spatial, temporal and demographic patterns which are important for identifying genetic and environmental(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies considerably around the world. No previous study has performed a comprehensive review examining the incidence and prevalence of MS across the Americas. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and assess the quality of studies estimating the incidence and/or prevalence(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disorder typically characterized by attacks of recurrent optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the discovery of the relatively specific NMO IgG biomarker have led to improved diagnostic accuracy and greater recognition of the broad(More)
Many disease-modifying therapies are currently available for adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) but none of them has been tested in pediatric MS in randomized placebo-controlled trials. At present, as suggested by observational studies and experts' guidelines, interferon-β and glatiramer acetate continue to be the standard first-line(More)
BACKGROUND First-line injectable therapies for multiple sclerosis in children may be ineffective or not well-tolerated. There is therefore an urgent need to explore oral medications for pediatric multiple sclerosis. We review our dual-center experience with oral dimethyl fumarate. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of children 18 years of age(More)
The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group held its inaugural educational program, "The World of Pediatric MS: A Global Update," in September 2014 to discuss advances and challenges in the diagnosis and management of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory CNS disorders. Highlights included a discussion on the revised(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA), a synthetic copolymer, is a frequently used first-line treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Probable autoimmune hepatotoxicity during GA treatment has been reported,(1-4) but GA hepatotoxicity in the absence of positive autoimmune markers has not previously been described. Here, we report GA-induced(More)
Acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation may occur as a monophasic illness or may represent the first attack of a chronic inflammatory disorder, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or CNS vasculitis. We review essential components of the initial assessment, diagnostic workup, acute and chronic management strategies, and research issues(More)
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