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Pre-existing neutralizing antibody provides the first line of defence against pathogens in general. For influenza virus, annual vaccinations are given to maintain protective levels of antibody against the currently circulating strains. Here we report that after booster vaccination there was a rapid and robust influenza-specific IgG+ antibody-secreting(More)
We describe herein a protocol for the production of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs). Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are isolated from whole blood collected 7 d after vaccination and sorted by flow cytometry into single cell plates. The antibody genes of the ASCs are then amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR, cloned into expression(More)
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
Determination of the origin and fate of autoreactive B cells is critical to understanding and treating autoimmune diseases. We report that, despite being derived from healthy people, antibodies from B cells that have class switched to IgD via genetic recombination (and thus become class switched to C delta [C delta-CS] cells) are highly reactive to self(More)
We have previously shown that broadly neutralizing antibodies reactive to the conserved stem region of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) were generated in people infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Such antibodies are rarely seen in humans following infection or vaccination with seasonal influenza virus strains. However, the important question(More)
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of(More)
The gut mucosal surface is efficiently protected by Abs, and this site represents one of the richest compartments of Ab-secreting cells in the body. A simple and effective method to generate Ag-specific human monoclonal Abs (hmAbs) from such cells is lacking. In this paper, we describe a method to generate hmAbs from single Ag-specific IgA- or IgM-secreting(More)
153 B-cell antigen receptor diversity is achieved by the assembly of antibody gene segments through V(D)J recombination (1). The random nature of the recombination process leads to the unavoidable production of self-reactive specifi cities, which are silenced both centrally and peripherally by clonal deletion, anergy, and receptor editing (2–6). Despite(More)
The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic potential of this strain, which, if realized, would have a substantial effect on global health and economies. H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase(More)
The discovery of lymphocytes bearing two light chains in mice carrying self-reactive antibody transgenes has challenged the "one lymphocyte-one antibody" rule. However, the extent and nature of allelically included cells in normal mice is unknown. We show that 10% of mature B cells coexpress both Igkappa alleles. These cells are not the result of failure in(More)