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The glucose transporter GLUT4 and the aminopeptidase IRAP (insulin-responsive aminopeptidase) are the major cargo proteins of GSVs (GLUT4 storage vesicles) in adipocytes and myocytes. In the basal state, most GSVs are sequestered in perinuclear and other cytosolic compartments. Following insulin stimulation, GSVs undergo exocytic translocation to insert(More)
PARsylation [poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation] of proteins is implicated in the regulation of diverse physiological processes. Tankyrase is a molecular scaffold with this catalytic activity and has been proposed as a regulator of vesicular trafficking on the basis, in part, of its Golgi localization in non-polarized cells. Little is known about tankyrase localization(More)
OBJECTIVE Tankyrase (TNKS) is a Golgi-associated poly-ADP-ribose polymerase that is implicated in the regulation of GLUT4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Its chromosomal locus 8p23.1 is linked to monogenic forms of diabetes in certain kindred. We hypothesize that TNKS is involved in energy homeostasis in mammals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Gene-trap(More)
Chromogranin A knockout (Chga-KO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity despite obesity. Here, we probed the role of the chromogranin A-derived peptide pancreastatin (PST: CHGA(273-301)) by investigating the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on insulin sensitivity of these mice. We found that on a high-fat diet (HFD), Chga-KO mice (KO-DIO) remain(More)
Neurexins are a family of transmembrane, synaptic adhesion molecules. In neurons, neurexins bind to both sub-plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle-associated constituents of the secretory machinery, play a key role in the organization and stabilization of the presynaptic active zone, and help mediate docking of synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown(More)
Due to its high energy consuming characteristics, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested as a key player in energy metabolism. Cold exposure is a physiological activator of BAT. Intermittent cold exposure (ICE), unlike persistent exposure, is clinically feasible. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether ICE reduces adiposity in(More)
Macrophage infiltration plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in macrophages. To examine the roles of C/EBPα in regulating macrophage functions and energy homeostasis, macrophage-specific C/EBPα knockout (MαKO) mice were created. Chow-fed(More)
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on(More)
The poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARsylation) activity of tankyrase (TNKS) regulates diverse physiological processes including energy metabolism and wnt/β-catenin signaling. This TNKS activity uses NAD+ as a co-substrate to post-translationally modify various acceptor proteins including TNKS itself. PARsylation by TNKS often tags the acceptors for ubiquitination(More)
Contact between β-cells is necessary for their normal function. Identification of the proteins mediating the effects of β-cell-to-β-cell contact is a necessary step toward gaining a full understanding of the determinants of β-cell function and insulin secretion. The secretory machinery of the β-cells is nearly identical to that of central nervous system(More)
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