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Exosomes are approximately 100-nm vesicles that consist of a lipid bilayer of cellular membranes secreted in large quantities from various types of normal and disease-related cells. Endocytosis has been reported as a major pathway for the cellular uptake of exosomes; however, the detailed mechanisms of their cellular uptake are still unknown. Here, we(More)
Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) from mammalian dermis represent neural crest-related stem cells capable of differentiating into both neural and mesodermal progency. SKPs are of clinical interest because they serve as accessible autologous donor cells for neuronal repair for neuronal intractable diseases. However, little is known about the efficient(More)
To design new antimicrobial peptides, we have focused on various proteins which are not essential for self-defense but carry important responsibilities for biosystems. Previously, we reported that highly efficient antimicrobial properties or antiviral properties are inherent in the nuclear translocation signals and binding sites on laminin receptors. Here(More)
LIM Kinase 2 (LIMK2) is a LIM domain-containing protein kinase which regulates actin polymerization thorough phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. It is also known to function as a shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus in endothelial cells. A basic amino acid-rich motif in LIMK2 was previously identified to be responsible for this(More)
Stem cell-based therapy using bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has been expected to be a promising therapy for neuronal regeneration. To repair the injured spinal cord, neuronal differentiation of MSCs before transplantation has a more satisfactory effect. Recently, neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor/stem cells by an intracellular delivery of a(More)
Nuclear translocation signal has been identified as a mediator of protein shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasm. Here we report that the combination of peptides from nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES) of HIV-1 Rev have an antiviral activity against the Herpes virus of turkey and Marek's disease virus serotype 1.
Bacteria use the receptor-adhesion-like interaction between laminin and the laminin receptor in the process of infection. We determined that bacteria do not interact with the receptor-binding site on laminin which could be expected for the bacterial laminin receptor. Rather, binding occurs via the laminin-binding site on the 67-kDa laminin receptor, which(More)
Nuclear Diffusion Inhibitory Signal (NIS) has been identified in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev as a nuclear signal peptide which modulates nucleocytoplasmic protein trafficking and intracellular stability of the HIV-1 Rev. In this study, it was discovered that antimicrobial properties are inherent in the NIS. This is a significant finding(More)
We demonstrate a novel system for inducing clustering of cell surface receptors via recognition peptide segments displayed on exosomes, leading to receptor activation. With this system, targeting of receptor-expressing cells and facilitation of the endocytic uptake of exosomes, which contained the anti-cancer protein saporin, were successfully achieved,(More)
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