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Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) continues to be a life-threatening neglected tropical disease, with close to 200 million people at risk of infection globally. Epidemics and resurgence of VL are associated with negligence by the policy makers, economic decline and population movements. Control of the disease is hampered by the lack of proficient(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is known to be associated with a mixed Th1-Th2 response, and effective host defense requires the induction of IFN-gamma and IL-12. We address the role of the differential decline of IL-10 and TGF-beta in response to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and amphotericin B (AmB), the therapeutic success of SAG and AmB in(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a disseminated infection of the lymphoreticular system of the body, is marked by severe defect in immune system of the host. Successful cure of VL depends on the immune status of the host in combination with the effects of the antileishmanial drugs. The rationale approach towards eradication of this disease would be(More)
Human infection with Leishmania results in diverse clinical and immunopathological situations. The capacity of the parasites to cause this wide range of disease manifestations depends upon their ability to evade the immune defense mechanisms by performing a well-tuned orchestra of hostparasite interactions inside the macrophages. While updated knowledge(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis represents a serious public health concern in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. The disease is difficult to diagnose and prevent, and available treatment is associated with toxicity and drug resistance. Even though significant headway has been made in the development of vaccines(More)
Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, is most prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and South America. Definite diagnosis and effective treatment are the primary needs for the control of VL. Diagnosis of VL has typically relied on microscopic examination of bone marrow/splenic aspirate, but serology and molecular(More)
Here we report the activity of liposomes comprising egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and stearylamine (SA) against Leishmania donovani parasites. Both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in vitro and in vivo were susceptible to SA-PC liposomes. A single dose of 55 mg of SA-PC liposomes/animal could significantly reduce the hepatic parasite burden by 85(More)
Diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is difficult, as the dermal lesions are of several types and resemble those caused by other skin diseases, especially leprosy. Since the disease generally appears very late after the clinical cure of kala-azar in India, it is also difficult to correlate PKDL with a(More)
Amlodipine and lacidipine, conventional antihypertensive drugs, inhibited Leishmania donovani infection in vitro and in BALB/c mice when administered orally. These 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives functioned through dose-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption, triggering caspase 3-like activation-mediated programmed cell death of the parasites.
Visceral leishmaniasis is deadly if not treated, and development of a vaccine with long-term immunity remains a challenge. In this study, we showed that cationic distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) liposomes, when used as vaccine adjuvant with the immunodominant 63-kDa glycoprotein (gp63) of Leishmania donovani promastigotes, induced significant(More)