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Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is a life-threatening disease involving uncontrolled parasitization of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Most available drugs are toxic. Moreover, relapse after seemingly successful therapy remains a chronic problem. In this study, we evaluated a new therapeutic approach based on combination of a low dose(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania, is fatal in the absence of treatment. At present there are no effective vaccines against any form of leishmaniasis. Here, we evaluate the potency, efficacy and durability of DNA/DNA, DNA-prime/Protein-boost, and Protein/Protein based vaccination against VL in a(More)
BACKGROUND The present pilot study investigating the minimum dose for short-course single and double-dose treatment of kala-azar with an apparently new liposomal formulation of amphotericin B, Fungisome, led to identification of immunological components for early detection of success and/or failure to cure. METHODS Patients were treated with 5, 7.5(More)
Serologic parameters of kala-azar were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Sera from kala-azar patients with confirmed diagnoses were screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass-specific reactivity against Leishmania donovani membrane antigen (LAg). Heterogeneous LAg-specific IgG reactivity with numerous proteins with molecular masses ranging from(More)
BALB/c mice immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intravenously (i.v.) with Leishmania donovani promastigote membrane antigens (LAg), either free or encapsulated in liposomes, were protected against challenge infection with L. donovani, whereas mice immunized by the subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular routes were not protected. Protected mice showed(More)
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for causing a variety of human diseases known as leishmaniasis, which range from self-healing skin lesions to severe infection of visceral organs that are often fatal if left untreated. Leishmania donovani (L. donovani), the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, exemplifys a devious organism(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum/chagasi represents the second most challenging infectious disease worldwide, leading to nearly 500,000 new cases and 60,000 deaths annually. Zoonotic VL caused by L. infantum is a re-emergent canid zoonoses which represents a complex epidemiological cycle in the New world(More)
BACKGROUND The development of an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is an essential aim for controlling the disease. Use of the right adjuvant is of fundamental importance in vaccine formulations for generation of effective cell-mediated immune response. Earlier we reported the protective efficacy of cationic(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani is a major public health problem in the developing world. But there is no effective and safe vaccine approved for clinical use against any form of leishmaniasis. Through reactivity with kala-azar patient and cured sera, polypeptides ranging from 91 to 31-kDa from L.(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance of Leishmania donovani to pentavalent antimonials, the first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), has become a critical issue worldwide. Second-line and new drugs are also not devoid of limitations. Suitable drug-delivery systems can improve the mode of administration and action of the existing antimonials, thus increasing(More)