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The molecular mechanisms involved in preventing regenerating dorsal root axons from entering the spinal cord at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) are obscure. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy to study axonal regeneration after dorsal rhizotomy in adult rats and its relationship to cellular changes and the(More)
Injury to the central processes of primary sensory neurons produces less profound changes in the expression of growth-related molecules and less vigorous axonal regeneration than does injury to their peripheral processes. The left L4, L5, and L6 dorsal roots of deeply anaesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats were severed and reanastomosed, and in some(More)
In an attempt to reconstruct the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned nigrostriatal system of the adult rat we have combined homotopic grafting of embryonic ventral mesencephalon suspensions with the implantation of long oblique "bridge" grafts of fibroblast growth factor-4-transfected RN-22 schwannoma cells stretching from the site of the neuronal grafts to the(More)
The neurotrophins NT4/5 and NT3 have previously been shown to improve the survival and fibre outgrowth of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In the present study we attempted to augment the efficacy of embryonic nigral grafts in vivo. This was done by directly infusing the neurotrophins intraparenchymally in close proximity to transplanted nigral(More)
This work presents a method for modeling and simulating a second-order analog phase-locked loops (PLL) in time domain for studying its acquisition behavior. The proposed method uses phase error process for analyzing the PLL characteristics. The method enables to study the lock-in and pull-in phenomena of analog PLL and the effects of changing phase offset(More)
The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system is used extensively in modern electronic systems such as modems, mobile communications, satellite receivers and television systems. This work presents a method for modeling and simulation of second-order PLL in time domain to study transient behavior during frequency acquisition and tracking. Here we utilize a basic PLL(More)
Expression of the mRNAs of the proto-oncogenes pp60c-src+, c-fos and jun D were studied using in-situ hybridisation histochemistry in the developing striatum and in striatal grafts. The temporal patterns of mRNA expression were monitored in the striatum of the normal developing rat from the 12th day of gestation (E12) to 10 days postnatally, and were(More)
Free-floating roller tube cultures of human fetal (embryonic age 6-10 weeks post-conception) and rat fetal (embryonic day 13) ventral mesencephalon were prepared. After 7-15 days in vitro, the mesencephalic tissue cultures were transplanted into the striatum of adult rats that had received unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal(More)