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INTRODUCTION Tenofovir is a potent nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor used with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the absence of renal toxicity observed in the major clinical trials of tenofovir, several case reports of acute renal failure (ARF) and proximal tubule(More)
Number of patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is growing worldwide. Hemodialysis remains the main modality of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients. A patent hemodialysis access (arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft) plays a key role in successful delivery of hemodialysis. Common vascular access issues encountered by patients and(More)
Thrombectomy is a common procedure performed to declot thrombosed dialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG). Complications associated with access thrombectomy like pulmonary embolism have been reported, but paradoxical embolism is extremely rare. We report a case of a 74-year-old black man with past medical history significant for(More)
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for renal replacement therapy (RRT) of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) because of its inherent advantages as compared to Hemodialysis. It provides the nephrologist with nonvascular alternative for renal replacement therapy. It is an inexpensive modality in developing countries and does not require(More)
Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of AKI to a higher stage associates with increased mortality. Intervening early in AKI when renal dysfunction is worsening may improve outcomes. However, serum creatinine correlates poorly with glomerular filtration in patients with cirrhosis(More)
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