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Recent work has suggested an association between the orbitofrontal cortex in humans and practical decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of cognitive deficits, with particular emphasis on decision-making processes, following damage to different sectors of the human prefrontal cortex. Patients with discrete orbitofrontal (OBF)(More)
Lesions to prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans can severely disrupt everyday decision-making, with concomitant effects on social and occupational functioning. Forty-six patients with unilateral lesions to prefrontal cortex and 21 healthy control subjects were administered three neuropsychological measures of decision-making: the Iowa Gambling Task, the(More)
A model of normal attentional function, based on the concept of competitive parallel processing, is used to compare attentional deficits following parietal and frontal lobe lesions. Measurements are obtained for visual processing speed, capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), spatial bias (bias to left or right hemifield) and top-down control(More)
Selective neuronal loss (SNL) in the rescued penumbra could account for suboptimal clinical recovery despite effective early reperfusion. Previous studies of SNL used single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), did not account for potential volume loss secondary to collapse of the infarct cavity, and failed to show a relationship with initial hypoperfusion.(More)
Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used(More)
Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the contribution of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), neuropsychological assessment, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based temporal lobe rating scale to the prediction of which patients with questionable dementia will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS Fifty subjects (19 early AD, 31 questionable(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Current indications for carotid endarterectomy are determined by balancing the relative risks of surgery with the benefits of reduced risk of subsequent stroke. Our purpose was to use MR perfusion imaging to assess patients being considered for carotid endarterectomy and to monitor sequential changes in MR perfusion characteristics(More)
Recent advances in MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) enable the identification of anisotropic white matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We aimed to use a novel DTI technique to safely study patients with recent stroke in a high field (3 T) MR machine with its intrinsically higher spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Of ten patients(More)
Subclinical acute ischaemic lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging have recently been described in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and may be important to understand pathophysiology and guide treatment. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic lesions are related to magnetic resonance imaging markers of(More)