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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate our sense of vision, smell, taste, and pain. They are also involved in cell recognition and communication processes, and hence have emerged as a prominent superfamily for drug targets. Unfortunately, the atomic-level structure is available for only one GPCR (bovine rhodopsin), making it difficult to use(More)
The prevailing paradigm for G protein-coupled receptors is that each receptor is narrowly tuned to its ligand and closely related agonists. An outstanding problem is whether this paradigm applies to olfactory receptor (ORs), which is the largest gene family in the genome, in which each of 1,000 different G protein-coupled receptors is believed to interact(More)
A major challenge in the application of structure-based drug design methods to proteins belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is the paucity of structural information (1). The 19 chemokine receptors, belonging to the Class A family of GPCRs, are important drug targets not only for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis but(More)
The first step in the perception of an odor is the activation of one or more olfactory receptors (ORs) following binding of the odorant molecule to the OR. In order to initiate the process of determining how the molecular level receptor-odorant interactions are related to odor perception, we used the MembStruk computational method to predict the(More)
Although glycosaminoglycans contribute to diverse physiological processes, an understanding of their molecular mechanisms has been hampered by the inability to access homogeneous glycosaminoglycan structures. Here, we assembled well-defined chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides using a convergent, synthetic approach that permits installation of sulfate(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to exist in dynamic equilibrium between inactive- and several active-state conformations, even in the absence of a ligand. Recent experimental studies on the beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) indicate that structurally different ligands with varying efficacies trigger distinct conformational changes and(More)
Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the(More)
We used the MembStruk first principles computational technique to predict the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of six mouse olfactory receptors (S6, S18, S19, S25, S46 and S50) for which experimental odorant recognition profiles are available for a set of 24 odorants (4-9 carbons aliphatic alcohols, acids, bromo-acids and diacids). We used the HierDock(More)
We employed the first principles computational method MembStruk and homology modeling techniques to predict the 3D structures of the human phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste receptor. This protein is a seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor that exists in two main forms worldwide, designated taster and nontaster, which differ from each other at(More)
Although functional selectivity is now widely accepted, the molecular basis is poorly understood. We have studied how aspects of transmembrane region 5 (TM5) of the dopamine D(2L) receptor interacts with three rationally selected rigid ligands (dihydrexidine, dinapsoline, and dinoxyline) and the reference compounds dopamine and quinpirole. As was expected(More)