Nagaraja Muniappa

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Kidney toxicity accounts both for the failure of many drug candidates as well as considerable patient morbidity. Whereas histopathology remains the gold standard for nephrotoxicity in animal systems, serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are the primary options for monitoring kidney dysfunction in humans. The transmembrane tubular protein(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small noncoding RNAs. Because of their size, abundance, tissue specificity, and relative stability in plasma, miRNAs hold promise as unique accessible biomarkers to monitor tissue injury. METHODS We investigated the use of liver-, muscle- and brain-specific miRNAs as circulating biomarkers of tissue injury. We(More)
The capacities of urinary trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and urinary albumin to detect acute renal tubular injury have never been evaluated with sufficient statistical rigor to permit their use in regulated drug development instead of the current preclinical biomarkers serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Working with rats, we found that urinary(More)
The Predictive Safety Testing Consortium's first regulatory submission to qualify kidney safety biomarkers revealed two deficiencies. To address the need for biomarkers that monitor recovery from agent-induced renal damage, we scored changes in the levels of urinary biomarkers in rats during recovery from renal injury induced by exposure to carbapenem A or(More)
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most frequently relied upon reference standard for monitoring liver injury in humans and nonclinical species. However, limitations of ALT include a lack of specificity for diagnosing liver injury (e.g., present in muscle and the gastrointestinal tract), its inability to monitor certain types of hepatic injury(More)
The identification of biomarkers for disease state, drug efficacy, and toxicity is becoming increasingly important for drug discovery and development. We have used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteomic markers associated with hepatocellular steatosis in rats after dosing with a compound (CDA) in(More)
Novel skeletal muscle (SKM) injury biomarkers that have recently been identified may outperform or add value to the conventional SKM injury biomarkers aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK). The relative performance of these novel biomarkers of SKM injury including skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), CK M Isoform (Ckm),(More)
A significant problem faced by pharmaceutical companies today is the failure of lead compounds in the later stages of development due to unexpected toxicities. We have used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify a proteomic signature associated with hepatocellular steatosis in rats after dosing with a compound(More)
Kidney toxicity accounts for a significant percentage of morbidity and drug candidate failure. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been used to monitor kidney dysfunction for over a century but these markers are insensitive and non-specific. In multi-site preclinical rat toxicology studies the diagnostic performance of urinary kidney(More)