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After two decades of war and conflict in Afghanistan, the public-health system is in disarray and malaria has re-emerged as a major disease, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria becoming increasingly common. The limited healthcare services that are available are mainly delivered by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with the Ministry of Health.(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica appears to be an emerging disease in parts of north-east Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan. Timargara, an Afghan refugee camp of 17 years' standing, in the district of Dir, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, experienced a major outbreak of CL in 1997 for the first time. As part of the(More)
A field trial of permethrin-impregnated bed nets (PIBs) was conducted in 2 Afghan refugee villages in Pakistan. Nets were issued to only 10% of families (= 1398 people); this simulated a situation in which bed nets are gradually adopted by villagers in Afghanistan. A further 10% lacking bed nets were selected as controls from the same villages. An initial(More)
BACKGROUND The standard method of malaria control in south Asia, indoor spraying of houses with residual insecticide, is becoming prohibitively expensive to implement and new approaches are needed. Since the region's vector mosquitoes feed predominantly on domestic animals and only secondarily on human beings, to apply insecticide to surfaces of cattle(More)
Malaria is often a major health problem in countries undergoing war or conflict owing to breakdown of health systems, displacement of vulnerable populations, and the increased risk of epidemics. After 23 years of conflict, malaria has become prevalent in many rural areas of Afghanistan. From 1993 to the present, a network of non-governmental organizations,(More)
Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) provide excellent protection against malaria; however, they have a number of shortcomings that are particularly evident in politically unstable countries or countries at war: not everyone at risk can necessarily afford a net, nets may be difficult to obtain or import, nets may not be suitable for migrants or refugees(More)
Synthetic repellents based on di-ethyl 3-methyl benzamide (DEET) are a popular method of obtaining protection from mosquitoes and yet clear evidence for a protective effect against malaria has hitherto never been convincingly demonstrated. A household randomized trial was undertaken among a study population of 127 families (25%) in an Afghan refugee village(More)
Primaquine is the only drug available that can eliminate hypnozoites from the liver and prevent relapses of vivax malaria. The World Health Organization recommends a course of 14-21 days depending on region and strain. The National Malaria Control and Eradication Programmes of Pakistan and India have adhered to a 5-day course as their standard as it is(More)
The only available treatment that can eliminate the latent hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria is a 14 d course of primaquine (PQ). A potential problem with long-course chemotherapy is the issue of compliance after clinical symptoms have subsided. The present study, carried out at an Afghan refugee camp in Pakistan, between June 2000 and August 2001,(More)