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Gangliosides are a family of glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid. Although they are abundant on neuronal cell membranes, their precise functions and importance in the central nervous system (CNS) remain largely undefined. We have disrupted the gene encoding GD3 synthase (GD3S), a sialyltransferase expressed in the CNS that is responsible for the(More)
According to a recent hypothesis, glycosphingolipids originating from the plasma membrane are degraded in the acidic compartments of the cell as components of intraendosomal and intralysosomal vesicles and structures. Since most previous in vitro investigations used micellar ganglioside GM2 as substrate, we studied the degradation of membrane-bound(More)
The distribution of PBP5, the major D,D-carboxypeptidase in Escherichia coli, was mapped by immunolabelling and by visualization of GFP fusion proteins in wild-type cells and in mutants lacking one or more D,D-carboxypeptidases. In addition to being scattered around the lateral envelope, PBP5 was also concentrated at nascent division sites prior to visible(More)
Cartilage degeneration in the course of osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with an alteration in chondrocyte metabolism. In order to identify molecules representing putative key regulators for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention, we analyzed gene expression and microRNA (miR) levels in OA and normal knee cartilage using a customized cartilage cDNA array(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 is the key transcriptional factor involved in the adaptation process of cells and organisms to hypoxia. Recent findings suggest that HIF-1 plays also a crucial role in inflammatory and infectious diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using patient skin biopsies, cell culture and murine infection models, HIF-1(More)
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