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Treatment options for toxoplasmosis in humans are generally limited to the use of sulfonamide and/or pyrimethamine-based compounds. However, there is increasing evidence for clinical therapy failures in patients suggesting the existence of drug resistance in these classes of drug. In vitro resistance to sulfadiazine has been detected in three strains of(More)
A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector control especially considering the current trend for large scale pyrethroid-treated bednet programmes. Screening Anopheles gambiae populations for the(More)
We have developed two reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to detect and quantify the transmission stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites. Both the qualitative and quantitative techniques are based on the amplification of mRNA coding for the P. chabaudi protein Pcs230, which is expressed exclusively in(More)
Soil-transmitted nematodes, including the Strongyloides genus, cause one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides species, including the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living(More)
How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point(More)
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and a wide range of livestock species. It is a genetically heterogeneous parasite that has been characterized in seven distinct genetic assemblages or cryptic species, and molecular markers can be used to differentiate both animal-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Little is known about(More)
Genetic technologies developed in the last 20 years have lead to novel and exciting methods to identify genes and specific nucleotides within genes that control phenotypes in field collected organisms. In this review we define and explain two of these methods: linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) mapping. The power to(More)
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites and tissue cyst-forming Coccidia of the phylum Apicomplexa. There are remarkable similarities between the morphology, genomes and transcriptomes of both parasites. Toxoplasma is zoonotic, with a wide host range and is mainly transmitted horizontally between its(More)
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