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The Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A symbiosis island is a 502-kb chromosomally integrated element which transfers to nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia in the environment, converting them to Lotus symbionts. It integrates into a phenylalanine tRNA gene in a process mediated by a P4-type integrase encoded at the left end of the element. We have determined the(More)
The majority of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, recovered in 2003 at the Department of Medical Microbiology in Zürich, Switzerland, belonged to major clones that are circulating worldwide. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (SCCmec-IV), harbored by half of the isolates, was found in sequence type 217 (ST 217), which(More)
An extremely low level methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to ST45, circulates among intravenous drug users in the Zurich area. This clone can be misinterpreted as an MSSA by phenotypic oxacillin resistance tests, although it carries a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element encoding a functional mecA gene and it(More)
Transformation of a type I SCCmec element into Staphylococcus aureus yielded highly oxacillin-resistant transformants with a reduced growth rate. Faster-growing variants could again be selected at the cost of reduced resistance levels, demonstrating an inverse correlation between oxacillin resistance levels and growth rate.
Glucosamine-6-P occupies a central position between cell wall synthesis and glycolysis. In the initial steps leading to peptidoglycan precursor formation glucosamine-6-P is processed sequentially to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, while to enter the glycolysis pathway, glucosamine-6-P is isomerized by NagB to fructose-6-P. Although we could not demonstrate NagB(More)
An association between moenomycin resistance and vancomycin intermediate resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated previously. Thus, to elucidate the mechanism of vancomycin intermediate resistance, we searched for factors contributing to moenomycin resistance. Random Tn551 insertional mutagenesis of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL(More)
The experimental deletion of the tcaRAB region has been shown to increase teicoplanin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. By sequential genetic complementation of a tcaRAB mutant, we identified tcaA as the key gene within tcaRAB that is responsible for changes in glycopeptide resistance levels. Northern blot analysis of the tcaRAB region showed that the(More)
Glycopeptide resistance, in a set of in vitro step-selected teicoplanin-resistant mutants derived from susceptible Staphylococcus aureus SA113, was associated with slower growth, thickening of the bacterial cell wall, increased N-acetylglucosamine incorporation, and decreased hemolysis. Differential transcriptome analysis showed that as resistance(More)
The vancomycin stress induced transcriptome of the methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strain Newman was determined by microarray analysis. Subsets of the induced ORFs corresponded to those previously reported to be induced by vancomycin in the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains N315 and JH1, and/or by other cell wall active(More)
Faster growing and more virulent strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly displacing highly resistant MRSA. Elevated fitness in these MRSA is often accompanied by decreased and heterogeneous levels of methicillin resistance; however, the mechanisms for this phenomenon are not yet fully understood. Whole genome(More)