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In higher plants, various developmental and environmental conditions enhance expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), whereas its induction in fungi is mainly dependent on cytochrome pathway restriction and triggering by reactive oxygen species. The AOX of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is encoded by two different genes, the Aox1(More)
Here we report the characterization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gene ARG9, encoding the plastid resident N-acetyl ornithine aminotransferase, which is involved in arginine synthesis. Integration of an engineered ARG9 cassette in the plastid chromosome of the nuclear arg9 mutant restores arginine prototrophy. This suggests that ARG9 could be used as a(More)
Mitochondrial transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been optimized by using a particle-gun device and cloned mitochondrial DNA or PCR fragments. A respiratory-deficient strain lacking a 1.2-kb mitochondrial DNA region including the left telomere and part of the cob gene could be rescued as well as a double-frameshift mutant in the mitochondrial(More)
In yeast, mammals, and land plants, mitochondrial F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase (complex V) is a remarkable enzymatic machinery that comprises about 15 conserved subunits. Peculiar among eukaryotes, complex V from Chlamydomonadales algae (order of chlorophycean class) has an atypical subunit composition of its peripheral stator and dimerization module, with nine(More)
Defects in complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC are the most frequent cause of human respiratory disorders. The pathogenicity of a given human mitochondrial mutation can be difficult to demonstrate because the mitochondrial genome harbors large numbers of polymorphic base changes that have no pathogenic significance. In addition,(More)
Two cDNA clones (AOX1 and AOX2) and the corresponding genes encoding the alternative oxidases (AOXs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated and sequenced. The cDNAs, AOX1 and AOX2, contained open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins of 360 amino acids and 347 amino acids, respectively. For each of the ORFs, a potential(More)
Mitochondria from diverse phyla, including protozoa, fungi, higher plants, and humans, import tRNAs from the cytosol in order to ensure proper mitochondrial translation. Despite the broad occurrence of this process, our understanding of tRNA import mechanisms is fragmentary, and crucial questions about their regulation remain unanswered. In the unicellular(More)
Microalgae are receiving increasing attention as alternative production systems for renewable energy such as biofuel. The photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is widely recognized as the model system to study all aspects of algal physiology, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG), which(More)
The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex(More)
In Chlamydomonas, unlike in flowering plants, genes coding for Nd7 (NAD7/49 kDa) and Nd9 (NAD9/30 kDa) core subunits of mitochondrial respiratory-chain complex I are nucleus-encoded. Both genes possess all the features that facilitate their expression and proper import of the polypeptides in mitochondria. By inactivating their expression by RNA interference(More)