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PRL is an anterior pituitary hormone that, along with GH and PLs, forms a family of hormones that probably resulted from the duplication of an ancestral gene. The PRLR is also a member of a larger family, known as the cytokine class-1 receptor superfamily, which currently has more than 20 different members. PRLRs or binding sites are widely distributed(More)
Mice carrying a germ-line null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene have been produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Heterozygous females showed almost complete failure of lactation attributable to greatly reduced mammary gland development after their first, but not subsequent, pregnancies. Homozygous females were sterile owing to a complete(More)
Growth hormone (GH) regulates both bone growth and remodeling, but it is unclear whether these actions are mediated directly by the GH receptor (GHR) and/or IGF-I signaling. The actions of GH are transduced by the Jak/Stat signaling pathway via Stat5, which is thought to regulate IGF-I expression. To determine the respective roles of GHR and IGF-I in bone(More)
The ERBB family of type 1 receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands have crucial functions during mammopoiesis, but the signaling networks that ultimately regulate ERBB activity in the breast have remained elusive. Here, we show that mice with Cre-lox mediated deletions of both Erbb4 alleles within the developing mammary gland (Erbb4(Flox/Flox)Wap-Cre)(More)
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a disorder associated with female infertility, which affects approximately 1% of women under 40 years of age. A genetic component has been suggested as one possible cause of the majority of cases of nonsyndromic forms. Newborn Ovary Homeobox (NOBOX) is an ovary-specific gene, playing a critical role in ovary in mice,(More)
Upregulation of the functional beta cell mass is required to match the physiological demands of mother and fetus during pregnancy. This increase is dependent on placental lactogens (PLs) and prolactin receptors, but the mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. We studied the mRNA expression profile of mouse islets during pregnancy(More)
Prolactin is a hormone involved in growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, brain and behavior, and immunoregulation. Its actions on reproductive processes represent the largest group of functions identified for this hormone. Besides the classic long form of the prolactin receptor, many short form receptors have been(More)
The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene is frequently used in the derivation of transgenic mouse lines to enhance transgene expression. Although this minigene is present in the transgenes as a secondcistron, and thus not thought to be expressed, we found that three commonly used lines, Pdx1-Cre(Late), RIP-Cre, and MIP-GFP, each expressed significant amounts(More)
Prolactin (PRL) is a paradoxical hormone. Historically known as the pituitary hormone of lactation, it has had attributed to it more than 300 separate actions, which can be correlated to the quasi-ubiquitous distribution of its receptor. Meanwhile, PRL-related knockout models have mainly highlighted its irreplaceable role in functions of lactation and(More)
Prolactin (Prl)-induced phosphorylation of Stat (signal transducer and activator of transcription) 5 is considered a key event in functional mammary development and differentiation. We now demonstrate that not only Prl, but also growth hormone (GH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), can activate Stat5 in mammary tissue. We investigated the roles of these(More)