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Numerous inflammatory disorders are associated with elevated levels of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and allied enhancement of reactive species formation contributory to systemic pathology. Despite a long standing association between increased XOR activity and negative clinical outcomes, recent reports describe a paradigm shift where XOR mediates beneficial(More)
Nearly 30 years have passed since the discovery of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a critical source of reactive species in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Since then, numerous inflammatory disease processes have been associated with elevated XOR activity and allied reactive species formation solidifying the ideology that enhancement of XOR activity equates(More)
Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are metabolic and inflammatory-derived electrophiles that mediate pleiotropic signaling actions. It was hypothesized that NO2-FA would impact mitochondrial redox reactions to induce tissue-protective metabolic shifts in cells. Nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) reversibly inhibited complex II-linked respiration in isolated rat heart(More)
Sources of nitric oxide alternative to nitric oxide synthases are gaining significant traction as crucial mediators of vessel function under hypoxic inflammatory conditions. For example, capacity to catalyze the one electron reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to ·NO has been reported for hemoglobin, myoglobin and molybdopterin-containing enzymes including xanthine(More)
The β93 cysteine (β93Cys) residue of hemoglobin is conserved in vertebrates but its function in the red blood cell (RBC) remains unclear. Because this residue is present at concentrations more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than enzymatic components of the RBC antioxidant network, a role in the scavenging of reactive species was hypothesized. Initial(More)
Superoxide (O2(•-)) promotes neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Conversely, nitric oxide ((•)NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through various cell-specific mechanisms, including redox regulation. What remains unclear is whether (•)NO exerts cell-specific regulation of the vascular redox environment following arterial injury to inhibit(More)
Recent data suggest that transitions between the relaxed (R) and tense (T) state of hemoglobin control the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) by deoxyhemoglobin. This reaction may play a role in physiologic NO homeostasis and be a novel consideration for the development of the next generation of hemoglobin-based blood oxygen carriers (HBOCs, i.e.(More)
Assessment of tissue free radical production is routinely accomplished by measuring secondary by-products of redox reactions and/or diminution of key antioxidants such as reduced thiols. However, immuno-spin trapping, a newly developed immunohistochemical technique for detection of free radical formation, is garnering considerable interest as it allows for(More)
AIMS Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, with the incidence of these disorders becoming epidemic. Pathogenic responses to obesity have been ascribed to adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction that promotes bioactive mediator secretion from visceral AT and the initiation of pro-inflammatory events that induce oxidative stress and(More)
Exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas during industrial accidents or chemical warfare leads to significant airway and distal lung epithelial injury that continues post exposure. While lung epithelial injury is prevalent, relatively little is known about whether Cl2 gas also promotes injury to the pulmonary vasculature. To determine this, rats were subjected to a(More)