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In food production, sugars (a type of carbohydrate) are widely used to make the food or beverages taste sweet and delicious. Both natural and manufactured beverages may contain a small amount of alcohol (specifically ethanol) as sugar based food is fermentable into alcohol. Therefore, Muslim consumers must be aware that the allowable percentage of alcohol(More)
In recent days, optical fibers have been developed as a transmission medium to carry traffic in order to provide various services in telecommunications platform. Failure of this fibre caused loss of data which can interrupt communication services. Thus, this paper will focus about protection scheme in order to guarantee the survivability of the networks.(More)
Currently, the main goal of developing time-wavelength- division multiplexing passive optical networks (TWDM-PONs) is to acquire capacity improvement in a scalable and cost-effective manner. In response to the challenge, this paper demonstrates a full-system TWDM-PON through physical layer simulation that provides 56 Gb/s downstream and 40 Gb/s upstream(More)
Passive optical networks (PONs) require a dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm at the optical line terminal for efficient utilizationofupstreambandwidth among the optical network units (ONUs) as per the quality of service requirements for each traffic class defined by PON standardizing bodies. The GigaPON access network (GIANT) was the first(More)
Network blocking performance due to wavelength continuity constraint in a well-connected all-optical network can be efficiently reduced by utilizing wavelength converters. Nevertheless, the introduction of high bit rate optical services with strict tolerance to signal quality would have a serious impact on the overall network performance since in this(More)
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