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This review describes the enzymes involved in human pyridine nucleotide metabolism starting with a detailed consideration of their major kinetic, molecular and structural properties. The presentation encompasses all the reactions starting from the de novo pyridine ring formation and leading to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis and(More)
NAD kinase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the formation of NADP, a coenzyme implicated in most reductive biosynthetic reactions and in many antioxidant defense systems. Despite its importance, nothing is known regarding its structure or mechanism of catalysis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD kinase has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified(More)
In Gram-negative bacteria, production of adhesion factors and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) is promoted by the activity of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), a class of enzymes able to catalyse the synthesis of the signal molecule bis-(3',5')-cyclic di-guanylic acid (c-di-GMP). In this report we show that in Escherichia coli, overexpression of the YddV(More)
The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), a member of the nucleotidyltransferase alpha/beta phosphodiesterase superfamily, catalyzes the reaction NMN + ATP = NAD + PPi, representing the final step in the biosynthesis of NAD, a molecule playing a fundamental role as a cofactor in cellular redox reactions. NAD also serves as the(More)
Rrp1 is the sole c-di-GMP-producing protein (diguanylate cyclase) of Borrelia burgdorferi. To test the hypothesis that Rrp1 regulates critical processes involved in the transmission of spirochetes between ticks and mammals, an rrp1 deletion mutant (B31-Δrrp1) and a strain that constitutively produces elevated levels of Rrp1 (B31-OV) were constructed. The(More)
Beyond its role as an essential coenzyme in numerous oxidoreductase reactions as well as respiration, there is growing recognition that NAD+ fulfills many other vital regulatory functions both as a substrate and as an allosteric effector. This review describes the enzymes involved in pyridine nucleotide metabolism, starting with a detailed consideration of(More)
In Gram-negative bacteria, production of bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) is the main trigger for production of extracellular polysaccharides and for biofilm formation. Mutants affected in c-di-GMP biosynthesis are impaired in biofilm formation, thus making DGCs interesting targets for new antimicrobial agents(More)
The first identification and characterization of a catalytic activity associated with NadR protein is reported. A computer-aided search for sequence similarity revealed the presence in NadR of a 29-residue region highly conserved among known nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases. The Escherichia coli nadR gene was cloned into a T7-based vector(More)
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) adenylyltransferase has been purified to homogeneity from human placenta. The purification procedure consists of several chromatographic steps, including dye-ligand, adsorption, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The final enzyme preparation is homogeneous as judged by a single silver stainable band on both(More)
A 1329-base pair clone isolated from a human placenta cDNA library contains a full-length 837-base pair coding region for a 31.9-kDa protein whose deduced primary structure exhibits high homology to consensus sequences found in other NMN adenylyltransferases. Northern blotting detected a major 3.1-kilobase mRNA transcript as well as a minor 4.1-kilobase(More)